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In October you could look here 2019 the icebreaker RV Polarstern sat trapped in thick sea ice atop the central Arctic Ocean—the only landmark in a vast expanse of where to buy levitra online nothingness. Another icebreaker, the Akademik Fedorov, approached it slowly, hauling a load of supplies and personnel. Scientists and crew lined the balconies of each ship, gripping the ice-crusted banisters as where to buy levitra online they peered across the void. They could see the smiling faces of their colleagues just feet away—but they were two time zones apart. At the North Pole, 24 time zones collide at a single point, rendering them meaningless.

It’s simultaneously all of Earth’s time zones and where to buy levitra online none of them. There are no boundaries of any kind in this abyss, in part because there is no land and no people. The sun rises and sets just once per year, so “time of day” is irrelevant as well. Yet there rests the Polarstern, deliberately locked in ice for a year to measure all aspects of that ice, the ocean beneath it where to buy levitra online and the sky above. The ship is filled with 100 people from 20 countries, drifting at the mercy of the ice floe, farther from civilization than the International Space Station.

I’ve been supporting communications for the mission remotely from landlocked Colorado, where time is stable. My world is a bewildering contrast to the alien one the ship’s scientists are living and working in—where time functions and feels where to buy levitra online different than anywhere else on the planet. No Time Zones Since the expedition began last September, the Polarstern’s time zone has shifted more than a dozen times. When the Akademik Fedorov and Polarstern parked side by side, they were still hours apart. But with where to buy levitra online no other people within hundreds of miles in all directions and with no cues from the permanently dark sky, the very concept of a time “zone” seemed meaningless.

At Earth’s other pole, time zones are quirky but rooted in utility. In Antarctica there is land and dozens of research stations scattered across thousands of square miles. At most stations, permanent buildings house laboratories, living quarters and social where to buy levitra online spaces. Each mini civilization has adopted its own time zone that corresponds with the home territory that built each place. At the North Pole, it’s all ocean, visited only rarely by an occasional research vessel or a lonely supply ship that strayed from the Northwest Passage.

Sea captains where to buy levitra online choose their own time in the central Arctic. They may maintain the time zones of bordering countries—or they may switch based on ship activities. Sitting here in my grounded office, it is baffling to think about a place where a single human can decide to create an entire time zone at any instant. Last fall the Polarstern captain pushed the time zone back one hour every week, for six weeks, where to buy levitra online to sync up with incoming Russian ships that follow Moscow time. With each shift, the captain adjusted automatic clocks scattered around the ship.

Researchers paused to watch the hands of analog clocks spin eerily backward. And every time the time changed, it jostled the delicate balance of clock-based communication—between instruments deployed on the ice, between researchers onboard, and between them and their families and colleagues where to buy levitra online on faraway land. No Time If drifting without established time zones isn’t alienating enough for people onboard, add the unsettling reality that there is no time of day either. What we think of as a single day, flanked by sunrise and sunset, happens just once per year around the North Pole. So I can’t help but wonder where to buy levitra online.

Does a single day up North last for months?. Is a year just a day long?. The Polarstern was where to buy levitra online engulfed by darkness in October after a three-week-long sunset—just as the other pole saw the first bits of a three-week sunrise after months of black. Once polar night takes over, there is only relentless darkness. Looking out from the ship's deck, a person sees a horizonless cavity—unless it is dotted by needles of light spouting from the headlamps of a couple of distant human beings at work—an otherworldly scene not unlike being on the moon.

Inside the ship is where to buy levitra online just as bizarre. How can 100 people function if there is no day, no night, no morning, no evening?. The voice of the German ship captain blasting over an intercom system is the sound of a wake-up call at 8 A.M.—whenever “8 A.M.” happens to be. People file where to buy levitra online into the mess hall for meals, held at predetermined intervals. Scientists head out to the ice to check on equipment or meet in laboratories at equally rigid periods.

The ship operates like a windup toy, disconnected from the spinning of the planet, which normally dictates time. €œTime” is just an where to buy levitra online operational ritual, intended to create the illusion of regularity. When scientists’ fingers are warm enough, they may occasionally send a limited satellite text to their bustling worlds far away. Communication with friends and colleagues who are in dozens of time zones where to buy levitra online involves convoluted time conversions—a reminder that the people on the ship are in suspended animation. A fleeting text message is only a momentary connection to a distant existence.

Weeks and months blur together. There’s no television, no news, where to buy levitra online no people passing by. Holidays come and go without festive displays in supermarkets or incessant holiday songs on car radios. The very concept of “December” feels fabricated. Each repetition of the operational rituals where to buy levitra online between subsequent periods of sleep feels identical, like living the same “day” again and again.

The only thing that truly reminds the team that time still ticks forward is data collection. Research instruments dot the frozen landscape around the ship, collecting measurements of the ice, the ocean, the sky—all on Coordinated Universal Time, which is based, ironically, on the position of the sun relative to Earth. The science, where to buy levitra online however, progresses undisturbed. Data collection has followed its own time since the Polarstern shoved off last September, liberated from the mental whiplash the humans endure. For the people onboard, monitoring the ever progressing data gives them a sense of the forward arrow of time.

Otherwise, that sense can where to buy levitra online only come with facial hair that grows—and with the smell of fresh bread. When the odor wafts through the ship, it must be “Sunday.” When scientists leave the Polarstern, they experience true timelessness. Some instruments are set up miles away on the ice, reachable only by helicopter. It’s so dark during the flights that researchers looking out the window can’t tell how far away the ground—or rather the ice floating on the where to buy levitra online ocean—is. The helicopter drops them on the surface and takes off again, the sound of whirring blades fading into the distance.

Then it’s true silence. All sense where to buy levitra online of time is irrelevant. Researchers may be huddled together, their headlamps creating a tiny pool of light in the blackness, like astronauts floating in space. Their head is heavily bundled from the cold, so all they hear is the beating of their own heart. That rhythm where to buy levitra online becomes the only tangible measure to track the passing of time.

A polar bear guard stands watch as the researchers work, trying to scan the horizon for danger. The polar bear, the animal that actually patrols the dark, frozen landscape, has no concept of time either. Maybe the bear feels only the pulse of Earth as it spins where to buy levitra online. What Matters May Be Experience My first of only a few calls from Colorado to the ship involved weeks of planning and trying and failing to connect with a satellite dish up there that could be blown over or buried under snow at any moment. When I finally made a connection, I held my breath and listened to a faint ring, then a long, cold pause.

The muffled, where to buy levitra online husky voice of a Russian radio attendant answered, “RV Polarstern, this is Igor.” A few weeks later I worked to organize a San Francisco–based press conference for the expedition. Our goal. Connect journalists with ship-based researchers by phone in real time. Logistics meant connecting with colleagues in five time zones on land while trying to nail down the “time” of a ship that could drift where to buy levitra online into another time zone at any instant. It felt like throwing darts blindfolded at a moving target.

We pulled it off, and soon after I was on a plane home. When the wheels hit the tarmac, I grabbed my phone to text my husband that I had landed safely where to buy levitra online. When I toggled off airplane mode, I saw the time jump from 8 P.M. To 9 P.M. In an instant where to buy levitra online.

Time is weird everywhere. Maybe time is defined not by numbers or zones or the spinning of Earth—but by what we experience. When I entered my house, I was where to buy levitra online eagerly greeted by my dogs. I fed them their dinner—their favorite “time” of day. Right about then, researchers on the ship were eating a bowl of warm oats before hitting the ice—“time” to check those instruments again..

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The team of Deputy and Associate Editors Heribert Schunkert, Sharlene Day visit this site and Peter SchwartzThe European Heart Journal (EHJ) wants to attract high-class alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra submissions dealing with genetic findings that help to improve the mechanistic understanding and the therapy of cardiovascular diseases. In charge of identifying such articles is a mini-team of experts on genetics, Heribert Schunkert, Sharlene Day, and Peter Schwartz.Genetic findings have contributed enormously to the molecular understanding of cardiovascular diseases. A number of diseases including various channelopathies, cardiomyopathies, and metabolic disorders have been elucidated based on a monogenic inheritance and the detection of disease-causing alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra mutations in large families.

More recently, the complex genetic architecture of common cardiovascular diseases such as atrial fibrillation or coronary artery disease has become increasingly clear. Moreover, genetics became a sensitive tool to characterize the role alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in the form of Mendelian randomized studies. However, the real challenge is still ahead, i.e., to bridge genetic findings into novel therapies for the prevention and treatment of cardiac diseases.

The full cycle from identification of a family with hypercholesterolaemia due to a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK-9) mutation to successful risk lowering by PCSK-9 antibodies illustrates the power of genetics in this regard.With its broad expertise, the new EHJ editorial team on genetics aims to cover manuscripts from alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra all areas in which genetics may contribute to the understanding of cardiovascular diseases. Prof. Peter Schwartz is a world-class expert on channelopathies and pioneered the field of long alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra QT syndrome.

He is an experienced clinical specialist on cardiac arrhythmias of genetic origins and a pioneer in the electrophysiology of the myocardium. He studied in Milan, worked at the University of Texas for 3 years and, as Associate Professor, at the University of Oklahoma 4 months/year for 12 years. He has been Chairman of Cardiology at the University of Pavia for 20 years and since 1999 acts as an extraordinary alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra professor at the Universities of Stellenbosch and Cape Town for 3 months/year.Prof.

Sharlene M. Day is Director of Translational Research alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra in the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine and Cardiovascular Institute at the University of Pennsylvania. She trained at the University of Michigan and stayed on as faculty as the founding Director of the Inherited Cardiomyopathy and Arrhythmia Program before moving to the University of Pennsylvania in 2019.

Like Prof alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra. Schwartz, her research programme covers the full spectrum from clinical medicine to basic research with a focus on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Both she alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra and Prof.

Schwartz have developed inducible pluripotent stem cell models of human monogenic cardiac disorders as a platform to study the underlying biological mechanisms of disease.Heribert Schunkert is Director of the Cardiology Department in the German Heart Center Munich. He trained alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra in the Universities of Aachen and Regensburg, Germany and for 4 years in various teaching hospitals in Boston. Before moving to Munich, he was Director of the Department for Internal Medicine at the University Hospital in Lübeck.

His research interest shifted from the molecular biology of the renin–angiotensin system to complex genetics of atherosclerosis. He was amongst the first to conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses, which allowed the identification of numerous genetic variants that contribute to coronary artery alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra disease, peripheral arterial disease, or aortic stenosis.The editorial team on cardiovascular genetics aims to facilitate the publication of strong translational research that illustrates to clinicians and cardiovascular scientists how genetic and epigenetic variation influences the development of heart diseases. The future perspective is to communicate genetically driven therapeutic targets as has become evident already with the utilization of interfering antibodies, RNAs, or even genome-editing instruments.In this respect, the team encourages submission of world-class genetic research on the cardiovascular system to the EHJ.

The team is also pleased to cooperate alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra with the novel Council on Cardiovascular Genomics which was inaugurated by the ESC in 2020.Conflict of interest. None declared.Andros TofieldMerlischachen, Switzerland Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra reserved.

© The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra please email. Journals.permissions@oup.com.With thanks to Amelia Meier-Batschelet, Johanna Huggler, and Martin Meyer for help with compilation of this article. For the podcast associated with this article, please visit https://academic.oup.com/eurheartj/pages/Podcasts.This is a Focus Issue on genetics.

Described as the ‘single alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra largest unmet need in cardiovascular medicine’, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) remains an untreatable disease currently representing 65% of new HF diagnoses. HFpEF is more frequent among women and is associated with a poor prognosis and unsustainable healthcare costs.1,2 Moreover, the variability in HFpEF phenotypes amplifies the complexity and difficulties of the approach.3–5 In this perspective, unveiling novel molecular targets is imperative. In a State of the Art Review article entitled ‘Leveraging clinical epigenetics in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

A call for individualized therapies’, authored by Francesco Paneni from the University of Zurich in Switzerland, and colleagues,6 the authors note that epigenetic modifications—defined as changes of DNA, histones, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs)—represent a molecular framework through which the environment modulates alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra gene expression.6 Epigenetic signals acquired over a lifetime lead to chromatin remodelling and affect transcriptional programmes underlying oxidative stress, inflammation, dysmetabolism, and maladaptive left ventricular (LV) remodelling, all conditions predisposing to HFpEF. The strong involvement of epigenetic signalling in this setting makes the epigenetic information relevant for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in patients with HFpEF. The recent advances in high-throughput sequencing, computational epigenetics, alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra and machine learning have enabled the identification of reliable epigenetic biomarkers in cardiovascular patients.

In contrast to genetic tools, epigenetic biomarkers mirror the contribution of environmental cues and lifestyle changes, and their reversible nature offers a promising opportunity to monitor disease states. The growing understanding of chromatin and ncRNA biology has led to the development of several Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved ‘epi-drugs’ (chromatin modifiers, mimics, alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra and anti-miRs) able to prevent transcriptional alterations underpinning LV remodelling and HFpEF. In the present review, Paneni and colleagues discuss the importance of clinical epigenetics as a new tool to be employed for a personalized management of HFpEF.Sick sinus syndrome (SSS) is a complex cardiac arrhythmia and the leading indication for permanent pacemaker implantation worldwide.

It is characterized by alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra pathological sinus bradycardia, sinoatrial block, or alternating atrial brady- and tachyarrhythmias. Symptoms include fatigue, reduced exercise capacity, and syncope. Few studies have been conducted on alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra the basic mechanisms of SSS, and therapeutic limitations reflect an incomplete understanding of the pathophysiology.7 In a clinical research entitled ‘Genetic insight into sick sinus syndrome’, Rosa Thorolfsdottir from deCODE genetics in Reykjavik, Iceland, and colleagues aimed to use human genetics to investigate the pathogenesis of SSS and the role of risk factors in its development.8 The authors performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of >6000 SSS cases and >1 000 000 controls.

Variants at six loci associated with SSS. A full genotypic model best described the p.Gly62Cys association, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.44 for heterozygotes and a disproportionally large OR of 13.99 for homozygotes. All the alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra SSS variants increased the risk of pacemaker implantation.

Their association with atrial fibrillation (AF) varied, and p.Gly62Cys was the only variant not associating with any other arrhythmia or cardiovascular disease. They also tested 17 exposure phenotypes in polygenic alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra score (PGS) and Mendelian randomization analyses. Only two associated with risk of SSS in Mendelian randomization—AF and lower heart rate—suggesting causality.

Powerful PGS analyses provided convincing evidence against causal associations for body mass index, cholesterol, triglycerides, and type 2 diabetes alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra (P >. 0.05) (Figure 1). Figure 1Summary of genetic insight into the pathogenesis of sick sinus syndrome (SSS) and the role of risk factors alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra in its development.

Variants at six loci (named by corresponding gene names) were identified through genome-wide association study (GWAS), and their unique phenotypic associations provide insight into distinct pathways underlying SSS. Investigation of the role of risk factors in SSS development supported a causal role for atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart rate, and provided convincing evidence against alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra causality for body mass index (BMI), cholesterol (HDL and non-HDL), triglycerides, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Mendelian randomization did not support causality for coronary artery disease, ischaemic stroke, heart failure, PR interval, or QRS duration (not shown in the figure).

Red and blue arrows represent positive and negative associations, respectively (from Thorolfsdottir RB, Sveinbjornsson G, Aegisdottir HM, Benonisdottir S, Stefansdottir L, Ivarsdottir EV, Halldorsson GH, Sigurdsson JK, Torp-Pedersen C, Weeke PE, Brunak S, Westergaard D, Pedersen OB, Sorensen E, Nielsen KR, Burgdorf KS, Banasik K, Brumpton B, Zhou W, Oddsson A, Tragante V, Hjorleifsson KE, Davidsson OB, Rajamani S, Jonsson S, Torfason B, Valgardsson AS, Thorgeirsson G, Frigge ML, Thorleifsson G, Norddahl GL, Helgadottir A, Gretarsdottir S, Sulem P, Jonsdottir I, Willer CJ, Hveem K, Bundgaard H, Ullum H, Arnar DO, Thorsteinsdottir U, Gudbjartsson DF, Holm H, Stefansson K. Genetic insight alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra into sick sinus syndrome. See pages 1959–1971.).Figure 1Summary of genetic insight into the pathogenesis of sick sinus syndrome (SSS) and the role of risk factors in its development.

Variants at six loci (named by corresponding gene names) were identified through genome-wide association study (GWAS), and alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra their unique phenotypic associations provide insight into distinct pathways underlying SSS. Investigation of the role of risk factors in SSS development supported a causal role for atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart rate, and provided convincing evidence against causality for body mass index (BMI), cholesterol (HDL and non-HDL), triglycerides, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Mendelian randomization did not support causality for coronary artery disease, ischaemic stroke, heart failure, PR interval, or QRS duration (not shown alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra in the figure).

Red and blue arrows represent positive and negative associations, respectively (from Thorolfsdottir RB, Sveinbjornsson G, Aegisdottir HM, Benonisdottir S, Stefansdottir L, Ivarsdottir EV, Halldorsson GH, Sigurdsson JK, Torp-Pedersen C, Weeke PE, Brunak S, Westergaard D, Pedersen OB, Sorensen E, Nielsen KR, Burgdorf KS, Banasik K, Brumpton B, Zhou W, Oddsson A, Tragante V, Hjorleifsson KE, Davidsson OB, Rajamani S, Jonsson S, Torfason B, Valgardsson AS, Thorgeirsson G, Frigge ML, Thorleifsson G, Norddahl GL, Helgadottir A, Gretarsdottir S, Sulem P, Jonsdottir I, Willer CJ, Hveem K, Bundgaard H, Ullum H, Arnar DO, Thorsteinsdottir U, Gudbjartsson DF, Holm H, Stefansson K. Genetic insight alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra into sick sinus syndrome. See pages 1959–1971.).Thorolfsdottir et al.

Conclude that they report the associations of variants at six loci with SSS, including a missense variant in KRT8 that confers alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra high risk in homozygotes and points to a mechanism specific to SSS development. Mendelian randomization supports a causal role for AF in the development of SSS. The article is accompanied by an Editorial by Stefan Kääb from LMU Klinikum in Munich, Germany, and colleagues.9 The authors conclude that the limitations of the work challenge clinical translation, but do not diminish the multiple interesting findings of Thorolfsdottir et al., bringing us closer to the finishing line of unlocking SSS genetics to develop new therapeutic strategies.

They also highlight that this study represents a considerable accomplishment for the field, but also clearly highlights upcoming challenges and indicates areas where further research is warranted on our way on the translational road to personalized medicine.Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked genetic disorder that affects ∼1 in every 3500 live-born male infants, making it the most alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra common neuromuscular disease of childhood. The disease is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which lead to dystrophin deficiency in muscle cells, resulting in decreased fibre stability and continued degeneration. The patients present with progressive muscle wasting and loss of muscle function, develop restrictive respiratory failure and dilated cardiomyopathy, and usually die in their late teens or twenties from alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra cardiac or respiratory failure.10 In a clinical research article ‘Association between prophylactic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and overall survival in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Analysis of registry data’ Raphaël Porcher from the Université de Paris in France, and colleagues estimate the effect of prophylactic angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors on survival in DMD.11 The authors analysed the data from the French multicentre DMD-Heart-Registry. They estimated the association between the prophylactic prescription of ACE inhibitors and event-free survival in 668 patients between the ages of 8 and 13 years, with normal left ventricular function, using (i) a Cox model with alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra intervention as a time-dependent covariate. (ii) a propensity-based analysis comparing ACE inhibitor treatment vs.

No treatment alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra. And (iii) a set of sensitivity analyses. The study outcomes were (i) overall survival and (ii) hospitalizations for HF or acute respiratory failure.

Among the patients included in the DMD-Heart-Registry, 576 were eligible for this study, of whom 390 were treated with alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra an ACE inhibitor prophylactically. Death occurred in 53 patients (13.5%) who were and 60 patients (32.3%) who were not treated prophylactically with an ACE inhibitor. In a Cox model, with intervention as a time-dependent variable, the hazard ratio (HR) alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra associated with ACE inhibitor treatment was 0.49 for overall mortality after adjustment for baseline variables.

In the propensity-based analysis, with 278 patients included in the treatment group and 302 in the control group, ACE inhibitors were associated with a lower risk of death (HR 0.32) and hospitalization for HF (HR 0.16) (Figure 2). All sensitivity analyses yielded similar results alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra. Figure 2Graphical Abstract (from Porcher R, Desguerre I, Amthor H, Chabrol B, Audic F, Rivier F, Isapof A, Tiffreau V, Campana-Salort E, Leturcq F, Tuffery-Giraud S, Ben Yaou R, Annane D, Amédro P, Barnerias C, Bécane HM, Béhin A, Bonnet D, Bassez G, Cossée M, de La Villéon G, Delcourte C, Fayssoil A, Fontaine B, Godart F, Guillaumont S, Jaillette E, Laforêt P, Leonard-Louis S, Lofaso F, Mayer M, Morales RJ, Meune C, Orlikowski D, Ovaert C, Prigent H, Saadi M, Sochala M, Tard C, Vaksmann G, Walther-Louvier U, Eymard B, Stojkovic T, Ravaud P, Duboc D, Wahbi K.

Association between prophylactic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and overall survival in Duchenne muscular alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra dystrophy. Analysis of registry data. See pages 1976–1984.).Figure 2Graphical Abstract (from Porcher R, Desguerre I, Amthor H, Chabrol B, Audic F, Rivier F, Isapof A, Tiffreau V, Campana-Salort E, Leturcq F, Tuffery-Giraud S, Ben Yaou R, Annane D, Amédro P, Barnerias C, Bécane HM, Béhin A, Bonnet D, Bassez G, Cossée M, de La Villéon G, Delcourte C, Fayssoil A, Fontaine B, Godart F, Guillaumont S, alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra Jaillette E, Laforêt P, Leonard-Louis S, Lofaso F, Mayer M, Morales RJ, Meune C, Orlikowski D, Ovaert C, Prigent H, Saadi M, Sochala M, Tard C, Vaksmann G, Walther-Louvier U, Eymard B, Stojkovic T, Ravaud P, Duboc D, Wahbi K.

Association between prophylactic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and overall survival in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Analysis of registry data. See pages alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra 1976–1984.).Porcher et al.

Conclude that prophylactic treatment with ACE inhibitors in DMD is associated with a significantly higher overall survival and lower rate of hospitalization for management of HF. The manuscript is accompanied by an Editorial by Mariell Jessup and colleagues from the American Heart Association in Dallas, Texas, USA.12 The authors describe how cardioprotective strategies have been investigated in a number of cardiovascular disorders and successfully incorporated into treatment regimens for selected patients, including ACE inhibitors in patients with and without diabetes alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra and coronary artery disease, angiotensin receptor blockers and beta-blockers in Marfan syndrome, and ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers in patients at risk for chemotherapy-related toxicity. They conclude that Porcher et al.

Have now convincingly demonstrated that even very young patients with DMD can benefit from the life-saving intervention of ACE inhibition.Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra is characterized by unexplained LV hypertrophy and often caused by pathogenic variants in genes that encode the sarcomere apparatus. Patients with HCM may experience atrial and ventricular arrhythmias and HF. However, disease expression and severity are alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra highly variable.

Furthermore, there is marked diversity in the age of diagnosis. Although childhood-onset alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra disease is well documented, it is far less common. Owing to its rarity, the natural history of childhood-onset HCM is not well characterized.12–14 In a clinical research article entitled ‘Clinical characteristics and outcomes in childhood-onset hypertrophic cardiomyopathy’, Nicholas Marston from the Harvard Medical School in Boston, MA, USA, and colleagues aimed to describe the characteristics and outcomes of childhood-onset HCM.15 They performed an observational cohort study of >7500 HCM patients.

HCM patients were stratified by age at diagnosis [<1 year (infancy), 1–18 years (childhood), >18 years (adulthood)] and assessed for composite endpoints including HF, life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, AF, and an overall composite that also included stroke and death. Stratifying by age of alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra diagnosis, 2.4% of patients were diagnosed in infancy, 14.7% in childhood, and 2.9% in adulthood. Childhood-onset HCM patients had an ∼2%/year event rate for the overall composite endpoint, with ventricular arrhythmias representing the most common event in the first decade following the baseline visit, and HF and AF more common by the end of the second decade.

Sarcomeric HCM was more common in childhood-onset HCM (63%) and carried a worse prognosis than non-sarcomeric disease, including a >2-fold increased risk of HF and 67% increased risk of the overall composite outcome alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra. When compared with adult-onset HCM, those with childhood-onset disease were 36% more likely to develop life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and twice as likely to require transplant or a ventricular assist device.The authors conclude that patients with childhood-onset HCM are more likely to have sarcomeric disease, carry a higher risk of life-threatening ventricular arrythmias, and have greater need for advanced HF therapies. The manuscript is accompanied by an Editorial by Juan Pablo Kaski from the University College London (UCL) Institute of Cardiovascular Science in London, UK.16 Kaski concludes that the field of HCM is now entering the era alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra of personalized medicine, with the advent of gene therapy programmes and a focus on treatments targeting the underlying pathophysiology.

Pre-clinical data suggesting that small molecule myosin inhibitors may attenuate or even prevent disease expression provide cause for optimism, and nowhere more so than for childhood-onset HCM. An international collaborative approach involving basic, translational, and clinical science is now needed to characterize disease expression and progression and develop novel therapies for childhood HCM.Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a heart muscle alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra disease characterized by LV dilatation and systolic dysfunction in the absence of abnormal loading conditions or coronary artery disease. It is a major cause of systolic HF, the leading indication for heart transplantation, and therefore a major public health problem due to the important cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.17,18 Understanding of the genetic basis of DCM has improved in recent years, with a role for both rare and common variants resulting in a complex genetic architecture of the disease.

In a translational research article entitled ‘Genome-wide association analysis in dilated cardiomyopathy reveals two new alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra players in systolic heart failure on chromosomes 3p25.1 and 22q11.23’, Sophie Garnier from the Sorbonne Université in Paris, France, and colleagues conducted the largest genome-wide association study performed so far in DCM, with >2500 cases and >4000 controls in the discovery population.19 They identified and replicated two new DCM-associated loci, on chromosome 3p25.1 and chromosome 22q11.23, while confirming two previously identified DCM loci on chromosomes 10 and 1, BAG3 and HSPB7. A PGS constructed from the number of risk alleles at these four DCM loci revealed a 27% increased risk of DCM for individuals with eight risk alleles compared with individuals with five risk alleles (median of the referral population). In silico annotation and functional 4C-sequencing analysis on induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes identified SLC6A6 as the most likely DCM gene at the 3p25.1 locus.

This gene encodes a taurine transporter whose involvement in myocardial dysfunction and DCM is supported by numerous observations in humans and alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra animals. At the 22q11.23 locus, in silico and data mining annotations, and to a lesser extent functional analysis, strongly suggested SMARCB1 as the candidate culprit gene.Garnier et al. Conclude that their study provides a better understanding of the genetic architecture of DCM and sheds alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra light on novel biological pathways underlying HF.

The manuscript is accompanied by an Editorial by Elizabeth McNally from the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago, USA, and colleagues.20 The authors conclude that methods to integrate common and rare genetic information will continue to evolve and provide insight on disease progression, potentially providing biomarkers and clues for useful therapeutic pathways to guide drug development. At present, rare alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra cardiomyopathy variants have clinical utility in predicting risk, especially arrhythmic risk. PGS analyses for HF or DCM progression are expected to come to clinical use, especially with the addition of broader GWAS-derived data.

Combining genetic risk data with clinical and social determinants should help identify those alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra at greatest risk, offering the opportunity for risk reduction.In a Special Article entitled ‘Influenza vaccination. A ‘shot’ at INVESTing in cardiovascular health’, Scott Solomon from the Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School in Boston, MA, USA, and colleagues note that the link between viral respiratory and non-pulmonary organ-specific injury has become increasingly appreciated during the current erectile dysfunction disease 2019 (erectile dysfunction treatment) levitra.21 Even prior to the levitra, however, the association between acute with influenza and elevated cardiovascular risk was evident. The recently published results of the NHLBI-funded INVESTED trial, a alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra 5200-patient comparative effectiveness study of high-dose vs.

Standard-dose influenza treatment to reduce cardiopulmonary events and mortality in a high-risk cardiovascular population, found no difference between strategies. However, the broader implications of influenza treatment as a strategy to reduce morbidity in high-risk patients remains extremely important, with randomized control trial and observational data supporting vaccination in high-risk patients with cardiovascular disease. Given a alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra favourable risk–benefit profile and widespread availability at generally low cost, the authors contend that influenza vaccination should remain a centrepiece of cardiovascular risk mitigation and describe the broader context of underutilization of this strategy.

Few therapeutics in medicine offer seasonal efficacy from a single administration with generally mild, transient side effects and exceedingly low rates of serious adverse effects. control alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra measures such as physical distancing, hand washing, and the use of masks during the erectile dysfunction treatment levitra have already been associated with substantially curtailed incidence of influenza outbreaks across the globe. Appending annual influenza vaccination to these measures represents an important public health and moral imperative.The issue is complemented by two Discussion Forum articles.

In a contribution entitled ‘Management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation and coexistent alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra atrial fibrillation’, Paolo Verdecchia from the Hospital S. Maria della Misericordia in Perugia, Italy, and colleagues comment on the recently published contribution ‘2020 ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation. The Task Force for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)’.22,23 A response to Verdecchia’s comment has been supplied by Collet alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra et al.24The editors hope that readers of this issue of the European Heart Journal will find it of interest.

References1Sorimachi H, Obokata M, Takahashi N, Reddy YNV, Jain CC, Verbrugge FH, Koepp KE, Khosla S, Jensen MD, Borlaug BA. Pathophysiologic importance of visceral adipose tissue in women with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction. Eur Heart J 2021;42:1595–1605.2Omland T alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra.

Targeting the endothelin system. A step towards a precision medicine approach in heart failure with preserved ejection alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra fraction?. Eur Heart J 2019;40:3718–3720.3Reddy YNV, Obokata M, Wiley B, Koepp KE, Jorgenson CC, Egbe A, Melenovsky V, Carter RE, Borlaug BA.

The haemodynamic basis of alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra lung congestion during exercise in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Eur Heart J 2019;40:3721–3730.4Obokata M, Kane GC, Reddy YNV, Melenovsky V, Olson TP, Jarolim P, Borlaug BA. The neurohormonal basis of pulmonary hypertension in heart failure with preserved alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra ejection fraction.

Eur Heart J 2019;40:3707–3717.5Pieske B, Tschöpe C, de Boer RA, Fraser AG, Anker SD, Donal E, Edelmann F, Fu M, Guazzi M, Lam CSP, Lancellotti P, Melenovsky V, Morris DA, Nagel E, Pieske-Kraigher E, Ponikowski P, Solomon SD, Vasan RS, Rutten FH, Voors AA, Ruschitzka F, Paulus WJ, Seferovic P, Filippatos G. How to diagnose heart alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra failure with preserved ejection fraction. The HFA-PEFF diagnostic algorithm.

A consensus recommendation from the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra J 2019;40:3297–3317.6Hamdani N, Costantino S, Mügge A, Lebeche D, Tschöpe C, Thum T, Paneni F. Leveraging clinical epigenetics in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

A call for alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra individualized therapies. Eur Heart J 2021;42:1940–1958.7Corrigendum to. 2018 ESC Guidelines alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra for the diagnosis and management of syncope.

Eur Heart J 2018;39:2002.8Thorolfsdottir RB, Sveinbjornsson G, Aegisdottir HM, Benonisdottir S, Stefansdottir L, Ivarsdottir EV, Halldorsson GH, Sigurdsson JK, Torp-Pedersen C, Weeke PE, Brunak S, Westergaard D, Pedersen OB, Sorensen E, Nielsen KR, Burgdorf KS, Banasik K, Brumpton B, Zhou W, Oddsson A, Tragante V, Hjorleifsson KE, Davidsson OB, Rajamani S, Jonsson S, Torfason B, Valgardsson AS, Thorgeirsson G, Frigge ML, Thorleifsson G, Norddahl GL, Helgadottir A, Gretarsdottir S, Sulem P, Jonsdottir I, Willer CJ, Hveem K, Bundgaard H, Ullum H, Arnar DO, Thorsteinsdottir U, Gudbjartsson DF, Holm H, Stefansson K. Genetic insight into sick alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra sinus syndrome. Eur Heart J 2021;42:1959–1971.9Tomsits P, Claus S, Kääb S.

Genetic insight into alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra sick sinus syndrome. Is there a pill for it or how far are we on the translational road to personalized medicine?. Eur Heart J 2021;42:1972–1975.10Hoffman EP, Fischbeck KH, Brown RH, Johnson M, Medori R, Loike JD, Harris JB, Waterston R, Brooke M, Specht L, Kupsky W, Chamberlain J, Caskey T, Shapiro F, Kunkel LM.

Characterization of alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra dystrophin in muscle-biopsy specimens from patients with Duchenne’s or Becker’s muscular dystrophy. N Engl J Med 1988;318:1363–1368.11Porcher R, Desguerre I, Amthor H, Chabrol B, Audic F, Rivier F, Isapof A, Tiffreau V, Campana-Salort E, Leturcq F, Tuffery-Giraud S, Ben Yaou R, Annane D, Amédro P, Barnerias C, Bécane HM, Béhin A, Bonnet D, Bassez G, Cossée M, de La Villéon G, Delcourte C, Fayssoil A, Fontaine B, Godart F, Guillaumont S, Jaillette E, Laforêt P, Leonard-Louis S, Lofaso F, Mayer M, Morales RJ, Meune C, Orlikowski D, Ovaert C, Prigent H, Saadi M, Sochala M, Tard C, Vaksmann G, Walther-Louvier U, Eymard B, Stojkovic T, Ravaud P, Duboc D, Wahbi K. Association between alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra prophylactic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and overall survival in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Analysis of registry data. Eur Heart J 2021;42:1976–1984.12Owens alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra AT, Jessup M. Cardioprotection in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Eur Heart J 2021;42:1985–1987.13Semsarian C, Ho alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra CY. Screening children at risk for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Balancing benefits and alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra harms.

Eur Heart J 2019;40:3682–3684.14Lafreniere-Roula M, Bolkier Y, Zahavich L, Mathew J, George K, Wilson J, Stephenson EA, Benson LN, Manlhiot C, Mital S. Family screening for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Is it alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra time to change practice guidelines?.

Eur Heart J 2019;40:3672–3681.15Marston NA, Han L, Olivotto I, Day SM, Ashley EA, Michels M, Pereira AC, Ingles J, Semsarian C, Jacoby D, Colan SD, Rossano JW, Wittekind SG, Ware JS, Saberi S, Helms AS, Ho CY. Clinical characteristics and outcomes in childhood-onset hypertrophic alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra cardiomyopathy. Eur Heart J 2021;42:1988–1996.16Kaski JP.

Childhood-onset hypertrophic cardiomyopathy research coming of age alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra. Eur Heart J 2021;42:1997–1999.17Elliott P, Andersson B, Arbustini E, Bilinska Z, Cecchi F, Charron P, Dubourg O, Kühl U, Maisch B, McKenna WJ, Monserrat L, Pankuweit S, Rapezzi C, Seferovic P, Tavazzi L, Keren A. Classification of alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra the cardiomyopathies.

A position statement from the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases. Eur Heart J alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra 2008;29:270–276.18Crea F. Machine learning-guided phenotyping of dilated cardiomyopathy and treatment of heart failure by antisense oligonucleotides.

The future has begun. Eur Heart J 2021;42:139–142.19Garnier S, Harakalova M, Weiss S, Mokry M, Regitz-Zagrosek V, Hengstenberg C, Cappola TP, Isnard R, Arbustini E, Cook SA, van Setten J, Calis JJA, Hakonarson H, Morley MP, Stark K, Prasad SK, Li J, O’Regan DP, Grasso M, Müller-Nurasyid M, Meitinger T, Empana JP, Strauch K, Waldenberger M, Marguiles KB, Seidman CE, Kararigas G, Meder B, Haas J, Boutouyrie P, Lacolley P, Jouven X, Erdmann J, Blankenberg S, Wichter T, Ruppert V, Tavazzi L, alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra Dubourg O, Roizes G, Dorent R, de Groote P, Fauchier L, Trochu JN, Aupetit JF, Bilinska ZT, Germain M, Völker U, Hemerich D, Raji I, Bacq-Daian D, Proust C, Remior P, Gomez-Bueno M, Lehnert K, Maas R, Olaso R, Saripella GV, Felix SB, McGinn S, Duboscq-Bidot L, van Mil A, Besse C, Fontaine V, Blanché H, Ader F, Keating B, Curjol A, Boland A, Komajda M, Cambien F, Deleuze JF, Dörr M, Asselbergs FW, Villard E, Trégouët DA, Charron P. Genome-wide association analysis in dilated cardiomyopathy reveals two new players in systolic heart failure on chromosomes 3p25.1 and 22q11.23.

Eur Heart J 2021;42:2000–2011.20Fullenkamp alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra DE, Puckelwartz MJ, McNally EM. Genome-wide association for heart failure. From discovery alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra to clinical use.

Eur Heart J 2021;42:2012–2014.21Bhatt AS, Vardeny O, Udell JA, Joseph J, Kim K, Solomon SD. Influenza vaccination alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra. A ‘shot’ at INVESTing in cardiovascular health.

Eur Heart J 2021;42:2015–2018.22Verdecchia P, Angeli alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra F, Cavallini C. Management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation and coexistent atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J 2021;42:2019.23Collet JP, Thiele H, Barbato E, Barthélémy O, Bauersachs J, Bhatt DL, Dendale P, Dorobantu M, Edvardsen T, Folliguet T, Gale CP, Gilard M, Jobs A, Jüni P, Lambrinou E, Lewis BS, Mehilli J, Meliga E, Merkely B, Mueller C, Roffi M, Rutten FH, Sibbing D, Siontis GCM.

2020 ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra ST-segment elevation. Eur Heart J 2021;42:1289–1367.24Collet JP, Thiele H. Management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation and coexistent atrial fibrillation – alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra Dual versus triple antithrombotic therapy.

Eur Heart J 2021;42:2020–2021. Published on behalf of the European alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved.

© The Author(s) 2021 alternatives to viagra cialis and levitra. For permissions, please email. Journals.permissions@oup.com..

The team of Deputy and Associate Editors Heribert Schunkert, Sharlene Day and Peter SchwartzThe European Heart Journal (EHJ) wants to attract high-class submissions dealing with cheap levitra online genetic findings that help to where to buy levitra online improve the mechanistic understanding and the therapy of cardiovascular diseases. In charge of identifying such articles is a mini-team of experts on genetics, Heribert Schunkert, Sharlene Day, and Peter Schwartz.Genetic findings have contributed enormously to the molecular understanding of cardiovascular diseases. A number of diseases including various channelopathies, cardiomyopathies, and metabolic disorders have been elucidated based where to buy levitra online on a monogenic inheritance and the detection of disease-causing mutations in large families.

More recently, the complex genetic architecture of common cardiovascular diseases such as atrial fibrillation or coronary artery disease has become increasingly clear. Moreover, genetics became a sensitive tool to characterize the role where to buy levitra online of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in the form of Mendelian randomized studies. However, the real challenge is still ahead, i.e., to bridge genetic findings into novel therapies for the prevention and treatment of cardiac diseases.

The full cycle from identification of a family where to buy levitra online with hypercholesterolaemia due to a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK-9) mutation to successful risk lowering by PCSK-9 antibodies illustrates the power of genetics in this regard.With its broad expertise, the new EHJ editorial team on genetics aims to cover manuscripts from all areas in which genetics may contribute to the understanding of cardiovascular diseases. Prof. Peter Schwartz is a world-class expert on channelopathies and pioneered the field where to buy levitra online of long QT syndrome.

He is an experienced clinical specialist on cardiac arrhythmias of genetic origins and a pioneer in the electrophysiology of the myocardium. He studied in Milan, worked at the University of Texas for 3 years and, as Associate Professor, at the University of Oklahoma 4 months/year for 12 years. He has been Chairman of Cardiology at the University of Pavia for where to buy levitra online 20 years and since 1999 acts as an extraordinary professor at the Universities of Stellenbosch and Cape Town for 3 months/year.Prof.

Sharlene M. Day is Director of Translational Research in the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine where to buy levitra online and Cardiovascular Institute at the University of Pennsylvania. She trained at the University of Michigan and stayed on as faculty as the founding Director of the Inherited Cardiomyopathy and Arrhythmia Program before moving to the University of Pennsylvania in 2019.

Like Prof where to buy levitra online. Schwartz, her research programme covers the full spectrum from clinical medicine to basic research with a focus on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Both she where to buy levitra online and Prof.

Schwartz have developed inducible pluripotent stem cell models of human monogenic cardiac disorders as a platform to study the underlying biological mechanisms of disease.Heribert Schunkert is Director of the Cardiology Department in the German Heart Center Munich. He trained in the Universities of Aachen and Regensburg, Germany and for 4 years in various teaching where to buy levitra online hospitals in Boston. Before moving to Munich, he was Director of the Department for Internal Medicine at the University Hospital in Lübeck.

His research interest shifted from the molecular biology of the renin–angiotensin system to complex genetics of atherosclerosis. He was amongst the first to conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses, which allowed the identification of numerous genetic variants that contribute to coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial where to buy levitra online disease, or aortic stenosis.The editorial team on cardiovascular genetics aims to facilitate the publication of strong translational research that illustrates to clinicians and cardiovascular scientists how genetic and epigenetic variation influences the development of heart diseases. The future perspective is to communicate genetically driven therapeutic targets as has become evident already with the utilization of interfering antibodies, RNAs, or even genome-editing instruments.In this respect, the team encourages submission of world-class genetic research on the cardiovascular system to the EHJ.

The team where to buy levitra online is also pleased to cooperate with the novel Council on Cardiovascular Genomics which was inaugurated by the ESC in 2020.Conflict of interest. None declared.Andros TofieldMerlischachen, Switzerland Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights where to buy levitra online reserved.

© The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please where to buy levitra online email. Journals.permissions@oup.com.With thanks to Amelia Meier-Batschelet, Johanna Huggler, and Martin Meyer for help with compilation of this article. For the podcast associated with this article, please visit https://academic.oup.com/eurheartj/pages/Podcasts.This is a Focus Issue on genetics.

Described as where to buy levitra online the ‘single largest unmet need in cardiovascular medicine’, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) remains an untreatable disease currently representing 65% of new HF diagnoses. HFpEF is more frequent among women and is associated with a poor prognosis and unsustainable healthcare costs.1,2 Moreover, the variability in HFpEF phenotypes amplifies the complexity and difficulties of the approach.3–5 In this perspective, unveiling novel molecular targets is imperative. In a State of the Art Review article entitled ‘Leveraging clinical epigenetics in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

A call for individualized therapies’, authored by Francesco Paneni from the University of Zurich in Switzerland, and colleagues,6 the authors note that epigenetic modifications—defined as changes of DNA, histones, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs)—represent a molecular framework where to buy levitra online through which the environment modulates gene expression.6 Epigenetic signals acquired over a lifetime lead to chromatin remodelling and affect transcriptional programmes underlying oxidative stress, inflammation, dysmetabolism, and maladaptive left ventricular (LV) remodelling, all conditions predisposing to HFpEF. The strong involvement of epigenetic signalling in this setting makes the epigenetic information relevant for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in patients with HFpEF. The recent advances in high-throughput sequencing, computational epigenetics, and machine learning have enabled where to buy levitra online the identification of reliable epigenetic biomarkers in cardiovascular patients.

In contrast to genetic tools, epigenetic biomarkers mirror the contribution of environmental cues and lifestyle changes, and their reversible nature offers a promising opportunity to monitor disease states. The growing understanding of chromatin and ncRNA biology has led to where to buy levitra online the development of several Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved ‘epi-drugs’ (chromatin modifiers, mimics, and anti-miRs) able to prevent transcriptional alterations underpinning LV remodelling and HFpEF. In the present review, Paneni and colleagues discuss the importance of clinical epigenetics as a new tool to be employed for a personalized management of HFpEF.Sick sinus syndrome (SSS) is a complex cardiac arrhythmia and the leading indication for permanent pacemaker implantation worldwide.

It is characterized by pathological sinus bradycardia, sinoatrial block, or where to buy levitra online alternating atrial brady- and tachyarrhythmias. Symptoms include fatigue, reduced exercise capacity, and syncope. Few studies have been conducted on the basic mechanisms of SSS, and therapeutic limitations reflect an incomplete understanding of where to buy levitra online the pathophysiology.7 In a clinical research entitled ‘Genetic insight into sick sinus syndrome’, Rosa Thorolfsdottir from deCODE genetics in Reykjavik, Iceland, and colleagues aimed to use human genetics to investigate the pathogenesis of SSS and the role of risk factors in its development.8 The authors performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of >6000 SSS cases and >1 000 000 controls.

Variants at six loci associated with SSS. A full genotypic model best described the p.Gly62Cys association, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.44 for heterozygotes and a disproportionally large OR of 13.99 for homozygotes. All the SSS variants increased the where to buy levitra online risk of pacemaker implantation.

Their association with atrial fibrillation (AF) varied, and p.Gly62Cys was the only variant not associating with any other arrhythmia or cardiovascular disease. They also tested 17 exposure phenotypes in polygenic where to buy levitra online score (PGS) and Mendelian randomization analyses. Only two associated with risk of SSS in Mendelian randomization—AF and lower heart rate—suggesting causality.

Powerful PGS analyses provided convincing evidence against causal where to buy levitra online associations for body mass index, cholesterol, triglycerides, and type 2 diabetes (P >. 0.05) (Figure 1). Figure 1Summary of genetic insight into the pathogenesis of sick where to buy levitra online sinus syndrome (SSS) and the role of risk factors in its development.

Variants at six loci (named by corresponding gene names) were identified through genome-wide association study (GWAS), and their unique phenotypic associations provide insight into distinct pathways underlying SSS. Investigation of the role of risk factors in SSS development supported a causal role for atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart rate, where to buy levitra online and provided convincing evidence against causality for body mass index (BMI), cholesterol (HDL and non-HDL), triglycerides, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Mendelian randomization did not support causality for coronary artery disease, ischaemic stroke, heart failure, PR interval, or QRS duration (not shown in the figure).

Red and blue arrows represent positive and negative associations, respectively (from Thorolfsdottir RB, Sveinbjornsson G, Aegisdottir HM, Benonisdottir S, Stefansdottir L, Ivarsdottir EV, Halldorsson GH, Sigurdsson JK, Torp-Pedersen C, Weeke PE, Brunak S, Westergaard D, Pedersen OB, Sorensen E, Nielsen KR, Burgdorf KS, Banasik K, Brumpton B, Zhou W, Oddsson A, Tragante V, Hjorleifsson KE, Davidsson OB, Rajamani S, Jonsson S, Torfason B, Valgardsson AS, Thorgeirsson G, Frigge ML, Thorleifsson G, Norddahl GL, Helgadottir A, Gretarsdottir S, Sulem P, Jonsdottir I, Willer CJ, Hveem K, Bundgaard H, Ullum H, Arnar DO, Thorsteinsdottir U, Gudbjartsson DF, Holm H, Stefansson K. Genetic insight where to buy levitra online into sick sinus syndrome. See pages 1959–1971.).Figure 1Summary of genetic insight into the pathogenesis of sick sinus syndrome (SSS) and the role of risk factors in its development.

Variants at six loci (named by corresponding gene names) were identified through genome-wide association study (GWAS), and their unique phenotypic associations provide insight into where to buy levitra online distinct pathways underlying SSS. Investigation of the role of risk factors in SSS development supported a causal role for atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart rate, and provided convincing evidence against causality for body mass index (BMI), cholesterol (HDL and non-HDL), triglycerides, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Mendelian randomization did not support where to buy levitra online causality for coronary artery disease, ischaemic stroke, heart failure, PR interval, or QRS duration (not shown in the figure).

Red and blue arrows represent positive and negative associations, respectively (from Thorolfsdottir RB, Sveinbjornsson G, Aegisdottir HM, Benonisdottir S, Stefansdottir L, Ivarsdottir EV, Halldorsson GH, Sigurdsson JK, Torp-Pedersen C, Weeke PE, Brunak S, Westergaard D, Pedersen OB, Sorensen E, Nielsen KR, Burgdorf KS, Banasik K, Brumpton B, Zhou W, Oddsson A, Tragante V, Hjorleifsson KE, Davidsson OB, Rajamani S, Jonsson S, Torfason B, Valgardsson AS, Thorgeirsson G, Frigge ML, Thorleifsson G, Norddahl GL, Helgadottir A, Gretarsdottir S, Sulem P, Jonsdottir I, Willer CJ, Hveem K, Bundgaard H, Ullum H, Arnar DO, Thorsteinsdottir U, Gudbjartsson DF, Holm H, Stefansson K. Genetic insight into sick where to buy levitra online sinus syndrome. See pages 1959–1971.).Thorolfsdottir et al.

Conclude that they report the associations of where to buy levitra online variants at six loci with SSS, including a missense variant in KRT8 that confers high risk in homozygotes and points to a mechanism specific to SSS development. Mendelian randomization supports a causal role for AF in the development of SSS. The article is accompanied by an Editorial by Stefan Kääb from LMU Klinikum in Munich, Germany, and colleagues.9 The authors conclude that the limitations of the work challenge clinical translation, but do not diminish the multiple interesting findings of Thorolfsdottir et al., bringing us closer to the finishing line of unlocking SSS genetics to develop new therapeutic strategies.

They also highlight that this study represents a considerable accomplishment for the field, but where to buy levitra online also clearly highlights upcoming challenges and indicates areas where further research is warranted on our way on the translational road to personalized medicine.Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked genetic disorder that affects ∼1 in every 3500 live-born male infants, making it the most common neuromuscular disease of childhood. The disease is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which lead to dystrophin deficiency in muscle cells, resulting in decreased fibre stability and continued degeneration. The patients present where to buy levitra online with progressive muscle wasting and loss of muscle function, develop restrictive respiratory failure and dilated cardiomyopathy, and usually die in their late teens or twenties from cardiac or respiratory failure.10 In a clinical research article ‘Association between prophylactic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and overall survival in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Analysis of registry data’ Raphaël Porcher from the Université de Paris in France, and colleagues estimate the effect of prophylactic angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors on survival in DMD.11 The authors analysed the data from the French multicentre DMD-Heart-Registry. They estimated the association where to buy levitra online between the prophylactic prescription of ACE inhibitors and event-free survival in 668 patients between the ages of 8 and 13 years, with normal left ventricular function, using (i) a Cox model with intervention as a time-dependent covariate. (ii) a propensity-based analysis comparing ACE inhibitor treatment vs.

No treatment where to buy levitra online. And (iii) a set of sensitivity analyses. The study outcomes were (i) overall survival and (ii) hospitalizations for HF or acute respiratory failure.

Among the patients where to buy levitra online included in the DMD-Heart-Registry, 576 were eligible for this study, of whom 390 were treated with an ACE inhibitor prophylactically. Death occurred in 53 patients (13.5%) who were and 60 patients (32.3%) who were not treated prophylactically with an ACE inhibitor. In a Cox model, with intervention as a time-dependent where to buy levitra online variable, the hazard ratio (HR) associated with ACE inhibitor treatment was 0.49 for overall mortality after adjustment for baseline variables.

In the propensity-based analysis, with 278 patients included in the treatment group and 302 in the control group, ACE inhibitors were associated with a lower risk of death (HR 0.32) and hospitalization for HF (HR 0.16) (Figure 2). All sensitivity where to buy levitra online analyses yielded similar results. Figure 2Graphical Abstract (from Porcher R, Desguerre I, Amthor H, Chabrol B, Audic F, Rivier F, Isapof A, Tiffreau V, Campana-Salort E, Leturcq F, Tuffery-Giraud S, Ben Yaou R, Annane D, Amédro P, Barnerias C, Bécane HM, Béhin A, Bonnet D, Bassez G, Cossée M, de La Villéon G, Delcourte C, Fayssoil A, Fontaine B, Godart F, Guillaumont S, Jaillette E, Laforêt P, Leonard-Louis S, Lofaso F, Mayer M, Morales RJ, Meune C, Orlikowski D, Ovaert C, Prigent H, Saadi M, Sochala M, Tard C, Vaksmann G, Walther-Louvier U, Eymard B, Stojkovic T, Ravaud P, Duboc D, Wahbi K.

Association between prophylactic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and where to buy levitra online overall survival in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Analysis of registry data. See pages 1976–1984.).Figure 2Graphical Abstract (from Porcher R, Desguerre I, Amthor H, Chabrol B, Audic F, Rivier F, Isapof A, Tiffreau V, Campana-Salort E, Leturcq F, Tuffery-Giraud S, where to buy levitra online Ben Yaou R, Annane D, Amédro P, Barnerias C, Bécane HM, Béhin A, Bonnet D, Bassez G, Cossée M, de La Villéon G, Delcourte C, Fayssoil A, Fontaine B, Godart F, Guillaumont S, Jaillette E, Laforêt P, Leonard-Louis S, Lofaso F, Mayer M, Morales RJ, Meune C, Orlikowski D, Ovaert C, Prigent H, Saadi M, Sochala M, Tard C, Vaksmann G, Walther-Louvier U, Eymard B, Stojkovic T, Ravaud P, Duboc D, Wahbi K.

Association between prophylactic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and overall survival in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Analysis of registry data. See pages 1976–1984.).Porcher et where to buy levitra online al.

Conclude that prophylactic treatment with ACE inhibitors in DMD is associated with a significantly higher overall survival and lower rate of hospitalization for management of HF. The manuscript is accompanied by an Editorial by Mariell Jessup and colleagues from the American Heart Association in Dallas, Texas, USA.12 The authors describe how cardioprotective strategies have been investigated in a number of cardiovascular disorders and successfully incorporated into treatment regimens for selected patients, including ACE inhibitors in patients with and without diabetes and coronary artery disease, angiotensin receptor blockers and where to buy levitra online beta-blockers in Marfan syndrome, and ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers in patients at risk for chemotherapy-related toxicity. They conclude that Porcher et al.

Have now convincingly demonstrated that even very young patients where to buy levitra online with DMD can benefit from the life-saving intervention of ACE inhibition.Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by unexplained LV hypertrophy and often caused by pathogenic variants in genes that encode the sarcomere apparatus. Patients with HCM may experience atrial and ventricular arrhythmias and HF. However, disease expression and severity are highly variable where to buy levitra online.

Furthermore, there is marked diversity in the age of diagnosis. Although childhood-onset disease is well documented, it where to buy levitra online is far less common. Owing to its rarity, the natural history of childhood-onset HCM is not well characterized.12–14 In a clinical research article entitled ‘Clinical characteristics and outcomes in childhood-onset hypertrophic cardiomyopathy’, Nicholas Marston from the Harvard Medical School in Boston, MA, USA, and colleagues aimed to describe the characteristics and outcomes of childhood-onset HCM.15 They performed an observational cohort study of >7500 HCM patients.

HCM patients were stratified by age at diagnosis [<1 year (infancy), 1–18 years (childhood), >18 years (adulthood)] and assessed for composite endpoints including HF, life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, AF, and an overall composite that also included stroke and death. Stratifying by where to buy levitra online age of diagnosis, 2.4% of patients were diagnosed in infancy, 14.7% in childhood, and 2.9% in adulthood. Childhood-onset HCM patients had an ∼2%/year event rate for the overall composite endpoint, with ventricular arrhythmias representing the most common event in the first decade following the baseline visit, and HF and AF more common by the end of the second decade.

Sarcomeric HCM was more common in childhood-onset HCM (63%) and carried a worse prognosis than non-sarcomeric disease, including where to buy levitra online a >2-fold increased risk of HF and 67% increased risk of the overall composite outcome. When compared with adult-onset HCM, those with childhood-onset disease were 36% more likely to develop life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and twice as likely to require transplant or a ventricular assist device.The authors conclude that patients with childhood-onset HCM are more likely to have sarcomeric disease, carry a higher risk of life-threatening ventricular arrythmias, and have greater need for advanced HF therapies. The manuscript is accompanied by an Editorial by Juan Pablo Kaski from the University College London (UCL) Institute of Cardiovascular Science in London, UK.16 Kaski concludes that the field of HCM is now entering the era of personalized medicine, with the advent of gene therapy programmes and a focus on treatments targeting the underlying where to buy levitra online pathophysiology.

Pre-clinical data suggesting that small molecule myosin inhibitors may attenuate or even prevent disease expression provide cause for optimism, and nowhere more so than for childhood-onset HCM. An international collaborative approach involving basic, translational, and clinical science is now needed to characterize disease expression and progression and develop novel therapies where to buy levitra online for childhood HCM.Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a heart muscle disease characterized by LV dilatation and systolic dysfunction in the absence of abnormal loading conditions or coronary artery disease. It is a major cause of systolic HF, the leading indication for heart transplantation, and therefore a major public health problem due to the important cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.17,18 Understanding of the genetic basis of DCM has improved in recent years, with a role for both rare and common variants resulting in a complex genetic architecture of the disease.

In a translational research article entitled ‘Genome-wide association analysis in dilated cardiomyopathy reveals two new players in systolic heart failure on chromosomes 3p25.1 and 22q11.23’, Sophie Garnier from the Sorbonne Université in Paris, France, and colleagues conducted the largest genome-wide association study performed so far in DCM, with >2500 cases and >4000 controls in the discovery population.19 They identified and replicated two where to buy levitra online new DCM-associated loci, on chromosome 3p25.1 and chromosome 22q11.23, while confirming two previously identified DCM loci on chromosomes 10 and 1, BAG3 and HSPB7. A PGS constructed from the number of risk alleles at these four DCM loci revealed a 27% increased risk of DCM for individuals with eight risk alleles compared with individuals with five risk alleles (median of the referral population). In silico annotation and functional 4C-sequencing analysis on induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes identified SLC6A6 as the most likely DCM gene at the 3p25.1 locus.

This gene encodes a where to buy levitra online taurine transporter whose involvement in myocardial dysfunction and DCM is supported by numerous observations in humans and animals. At the 22q11.23 locus, in silico and data mining annotations, and to a lesser extent functional analysis, strongly suggested SMARCB1 as the candidate culprit gene.Garnier et al. Conclude that their study provides a better understanding of the where to buy levitra online genetic architecture of DCM and sheds light on novel biological pathways underlying HF.

The manuscript is accompanied by an Editorial by Elizabeth McNally from the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago, USA, and colleagues.20 The authors conclude that methods to integrate common and rare genetic information will continue to evolve and provide insight on disease progression, potentially providing biomarkers and clues for useful therapeutic pathways to guide drug development. At present, rare where to buy levitra online cardiomyopathy variants have clinical utility in predicting risk, especially arrhythmic risk. PGS analyses for HF or DCM progression are expected to come to clinical use, especially with the addition of broader GWAS-derived data.

Combining genetic risk data with clinical and where to buy levitra online social determinants should help identify those at greatest risk, offering the opportunity for risk reduction.In a Special Article entitled ‘Influenza vaccination. A ‘shot’ at INVESTing in cardiovascular health’, Scott Solomon from the Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School in Boston, MA, USA, and colleagues note that the link between viral respiratory and non-pulmonary organ-specific injury has become increasingly appreciated during the current erectile dysfunction disease 2019 (erectile dysfunction treatment) levitra.21 Even prior to the levitra, however, the association between acute with influenza and elevated cardiovascular risk was evident. The recently published results of the NHLBI-funded INVESTED trial, a 5200-patient comparative effectiveness study of where to buy levitra online high-dose vs.

Standard-dose influenza treatment to reduce cardiopulmonary events and mortality in a high-risk cardiovascular population, found no difference between strategies. However, the broader implications of influenza treatment as a strategy to reduce morbidity in high-risk patients remains extremely important, with randomized control trial and observational data supporting vaccination in high-risk patients with cardiovascular disease. Given a favourable risk–benefit profile and widespread availability at generally low cost, the where to buy levitra online authors contend that influenza vaccination should remain a centrepiece of cardiovascular risk mitigation and describe the broader context of underutilization of this strategy.

Few therapeutics in medicine offer seasonal efficacy from a single administration with generally mild, transient side effects and exceedingly low rates of serious adverse effects. control measures such as physical distancing, hand washing, and where to buy levitra online the use of masks during the erectile dysfunction treatment levitra have already been associated with substantially curtailed incidence of influenza outbreaks across the globe. Appending annual influenza vaccination to these measures represents an important public health and moral imperative.The issue is complemented by two Discussion Forum articles.

In a contribution entitled ‘Management where to buy levitra online of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation and coexistent atrial fibrillation’, Paolo Verdecchia from the Hospital S. Maria della Misericordia in Perugia, Italy, and colleagues comment on the recently published contribution ‘2020 ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation. The Task Force for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)’.22,23 A response to Verdecchia’s comment has been supplied by Collet et al.24The editors hope where to buy levitra online that readers of this issue of the European Heart Journal will find it of interest.

References1Sorimachi H, Obokata M, Takahashi N, Reddy YNV, Jain CC, Verbrugge FH, Koepp KE, Khosla S, Jensen MD, Borlaug BA. Pathophysiologic importance of visceral adipose tissue in women with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction. Eur Heart J 2021;42:1595–1605.2Omland T where to buy levitra online.

Targeting the endothelin system. A step towards a precision where to buy levitra online medicine approach in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction?. Eur Heart J 2019;40:3718–3720.3Reddy YNV, Obokata M, Wiley B, Koepp KE, Jorgenson CC, Egbe A, Melenovsky V, Carter RE, Borlaug BA.

The haemodynamic basis of lung congestion during exercise in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction where to buy levitra online. Eur Heart J 2019;40:3721–3730.4Obokata M, Kane GC, Reddy YNV, Melenovsky V, Olson TP, Jarolim P, Borlaug BA. The neurohormonal where to buy levitra online basis of pulmonary hypertension in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

Eur Heart J 2019;40:3707–3717.5Pieske B, Tschöpe C, de Boer RA, Fraser AG, Anker SD, Donal E, Edelmann F, Fu M, Guazzi M, Lam CSP, Lancellotti P, Melenovsky V, Morris DA, Nagel E, Pieske-Kraigher E, Ponikowski P, Solomon SD, Vasan RS, Rutten FH, Voors AA, Ruschitzka F, Paulus WJ, Seferovic P, Filippatos G. How to diagnose heart where to buy levitra online failure with preserved ejection fraction. The HFA-PEFF diagnostic algorithm.

A consensus recommendation from the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart where to buy levitra online J 2019;40:3297–3317.6Hamdani N, Costantino S, Mügge A, Lebeche D, Tschöpe C, Thum T, Paneni F. Leveraging clinical epigenetics in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

A call for where to buy levitra online individualized therapies. Eur Heart J 2021;42:1940–1958.7Corrigendum to. 2018 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope where to buy levitra online.

Eur Heart J 2018;39:2002.8Thorolfsdottir RB, Sveinbjornsson G, Aegisdottir HM, Benonisdottir S, Stefansdottir L, Ivarsdottir EV, Halldorsson GH, Sigurdsson JK, Torp-Pedersen C, Weeke PE, Brunak S, Westergaard D, Pedersen OB, Sorensen E, Nielsen KR, Burgdorf KS, Banasik K, Brumpton B, Zhou W, Oddsson A, Tragante V, Hjorleifsson KE, Davidsson OB, Rajamani S, Jonsson S, Torfason B, Valgardsson AS, Thorgeirsson G, Frigge ML, Thorleifsson G, Norddahl GL, Helgadottir A, Gretarsdottir S, Sulem P, Jonsdottir I, Willer CJ, Hveem K, Bundgaard H, Ullum H, Arnar DO, Thorsteinsdottir U, Gudbjartsson DF, Holm H, Stefansson K. Genetic insight where to buy levitra online into sick sinus syndrome. Eur Heart J 2021;42:1959–1971.9Tomsits P, Claus S, Kääb S.

Genetic insight into sick sinus where to buy levitra online syndrome. Is there a pill for it or how far are we on the translational road to personalized medicine?. Eur Heart J 2021;42:1972–1975.10Hoffman EP, Fischbeck KH, Brown RH, Johnson M, Medori R, Loike JD, Harris JB, Waterston R, Brooke M, Specht L, Kupsky W, Chamberlain J, Caskey T, Shapiro F, Kunkel LM.

Characterization of dystrophin in muscle-biopsy specimens from patients with Duchenne’s or Becker’s muscular dystrophy where to buy levitra online. N Engl J Med 1988;318:1363–1368.11Porcher R, Desguerre I, Amthor H, Chabrol B, Audic F, Rivier F, Isapof A, Tiffreau V, Campana-Salort E, Leturcq F, Tuffery-Giraud S, Ben Yaou R, Annane D, Amédro P, Barnerias C, Bécane HM, Béhin A, Bonnet D, Bassez G, Cossée M, de La Villéon G, Delcourte C, Fayssoil A, Fontaine B, Godart F, Guillaumont S, Jaillette E, Laforêt P, Leonard-Louis S, Lofaso F, Mayer M, Morales RJ, Meune C, Orlikowski D, Ovaert C, Prigent H, Saadi M, Sochala M, Tard C, Vaksmann G, Walther-Louvier U, Eymard B, Stojkovic T, Ravaud P, Duboc D, Wahbi K. Association between prophylactic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and overall where to buy levitra online survival in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Analysis of registry data. Eur Heart J 2021;42:1976–1984.12Owens where to buy levitra online AT, Jessup M. Cardioprotection in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Eur Heart J 2021;42:1985–1987.13Semsarian C, Ho where to buy levitra online CY. Screening children at risk for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Balancing benefits and harms where to buy levitra online.

Eur Heart J 2019;40:3682–3684.14Lafreniere-Roula M, Bolkier Y, Zahavich L, Mathew J, George K, Wilson J, Stephenson EA, Benson LN, Manlhiot C, Mital S. Family screening for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Is it time where to buy levitra online to change practice guidelines?.

Eur Heart J 2019;40:3672–3681.15Marston NA, Han L, Olivotto I, Day SM, Ashley EA, Michels M, Pereira AC, Ingles J, Semsarian C, Jacoby D, Colan SD, Rossano JW, Wittekind SG, Ware JS, Saberi S, Helms AS, Ho CY. Clinical characteristics and where to buy levitra online outcomes in childhood-onset hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Eur Heart J 2021;42:1988–1996.16Kaski JP.

Childhood-onset hypertrophic cardiomyopathy research coming of age where to buy levitra online. Eur Heart J 2021;42:1997–1999.17Elliott P, Andersson B, Arbustini E, Bilinska Z, Cecchi F, Charron P, Dubourg O, Kühl U, Maisch B, McKenna WJ, Monserrat L, Pankuweit S, Rapezzi C, Seferovic P, Tavazzi L, Keren A. Classification of the cardiomyopathies where to buy levitra online.

A position statement from the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases. Eur Heart where to buy levitra online J 2008;29:270–276.18Crea F. Machine learning-guided phenotyping of dilated cardiomyopathy and treatment of heart failure by antisense oligonucleotides.

The future has begun. Eur Heart J 2021;42:139–142.19Garnier S, Harakalova M, Weiss S, Mokry M, Regitz-Zagrosek V, Hengstenberg C, Cappola TP, Isnard R, Arbustini E, Cook SA, van Setten J, Calis JJA, Hakonarson H, Morley MP, Stark K, Prasad SK, Li J, O’Regan DP, Grasso M, Müller-Nurasyid M, Meitinger T, Empana JP, Strauch K, Waldenberger where to buy levitra online M, Marguiles KB, Seidman CE, Kararigas G, Meder B, Haas J, Boutouyrie P, Lacolley P, Jouven X, Erdmann J, Blankenberg S, Wichter T, Ruppert V, Tavazzi L, Dubourg O, Roizes G, Dorent R, de Groote P, Fauchier L, Trochu JN, Aupetit JF, Bilinska ZT, Germain M, Völker U, Hemerich D, Raji I, Bacq-Daian D, Proust C, Remior P, Gomez-Bueno M, Lehnert K, Maas R, Olaso R, Saripella GV, Felix SB, McGinn S, Duboscq-Bidot L, van Mil A, Besse C, Fontaine V, Blanché H, Ader F, Keating B, Curjol A, Boland A, Komajda M, Cambien F, Deleuze JF, Dörr M, Asselbergs FW, Villard E, Trégouët DA, Charron P. Genome-wide association analysis in dilated cardiomyopathy reveals two new players in systolic heart failure on chromosomes 3p25.1 and 22q11.23.

Eur Heart J 2021;42:2000–2011.20Fullenkamp DE, Puckelwartz where to buy levitra online MJ, McNally EM. Genome-wide association for heart failure. From discovery to where to buy levitra online clinical use.

Eur Heart J 2021;42:2012–2014.21Bhatt AS, Vardeny O, Udell JA, Joseph J, Kim K, Solomon SD. Influenza vaccination where to buy levitra online. A ‘shot’ at INVESTing in cardiovascular health.

Eur Heart J 2021;42:2015–2018.22Verdecchia P, Angeli F, Cavallini where to buy levitra online C. Management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation and coexistent atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J 2021;42:2019.23Collet JP, Thiele H, Barbato E, Barthélémy O, Bauersachs J, Bhatt DL, Dendale P, Dorobantu M, Edvardsen T, Folliguet T, Gale CP, Gilard M, Jobs A, Jüni P, Lambrinou E, Lewis BS, Mehilli J, Meliga E, Merkely B, Mueller C, Roffi M, Rutten FH, Sibbing D, Siontis GCM.

2020 ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients where to buy levitra online presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation. Eur Heart J 2021;42:1289–1367.24Collet JP, Thiele H. Management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation and coexistent where to buy levitra online atrial fibrillation – Dual versus triple antithrombotic therapy.

Eur Heart J 2021;42:2020–2021. Published where to buy levitra online on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved.

© The Author(s) 2021 where to buy levitra online. For permissions, please email. Journals.permissions@oup.com..

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Start Preamble Federal Communications levitra in canada brand Commission purchase levitra canada Notice. The National Suicide Hotline Designation Act of 2020 (Suicide Hotline Act) designates 988 as the universal telephone number within the United States for the purpose of the national suicide prevention and mental health crisis hotline system within one year after enactment of the Suicide Hotline Act. It also levitra in canada brand directs the Federal Communications Commission to submit a report on location identification. This public notice seeks comment on issues to inform the location identification report, which is due to Congress by April 17, 2021. This Public Notice also clarifies that the designation of 988 as the universal telephone number within the United States for the national suicide prevention and mental health crisis hotline will take effect on October 17, 2021, which is one year after the date of enactment of the Suicide Hotline Act, and not on October 16, 2020.

Comments are due on or before levitra in canada brand December 21, 2020 and Reply Comments are due on or before January 11, 2021. You may submit comments, identified by WC Docket No. 18-336, by any of the following methods. Federal Communications levitra in canada brand Commission's website. Http://apps.fcc.gov/​ecfs/​.

Follow the instructions for levitra in canada brand submitting comments. Mail. Federal Communications Commission, 45 L St. NE, Washington, levitra in canada brand DC 20554. People with Disabilities.

Contact the FCC to request reasonable accommodations (accessible format documents, sign language interpreters, CART, etc.) by email. FCC504@fcc.gov or levitra in canada brand phone. 202-418-0530 or TTY. 202-418-0432. Start Further Info Michelle Sclater, michelle.sclater@fcc.gov or (202) 418-0388 levitra in canada brand.

End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information On October 17, 2020, the President signed the National Suicide Hotline Designation Act of 2020 into law (Suicide Hotline Act). The Suicide Hotline Act designates 988 as the universal telephone number within the United States for the purpose of the national suicide prevention and mental health crisis hotline system within one levitra in canada brand year after enactment of the Suicide Hotline Act. It also directs the Commission to submit a report on location identification. By this public notice, we seek comment on issues to inform the location identification report, which is due to Congress by April 17, 2021. Section 5 of the Suicide Hotline Act requires the Commission to submit a report to the appropriate committees “that examines levitra in canada brand the feasibility and cost of including an automatic dispatchable location that would be conveyed with a 9-8-8 call, regardless of the technological platform used and including with calls from multi-line telephone systems,” and as such, we seek comment on these issues generally.

More specifically, what is the feasibility of including location information with a 988 call?. What technical issues are involved and how can they be overcome, including with respect to multi-line telephone systems?. How long would levitra in canada brand an implementation process take?. What are the costs involved—both the financial costs and any potential risks to consumer privacy or other non-monetary costs?. We note that in addition to soliciting written public comment by this Public Notice, we will invite members of our expert advisory committee, the North American Numbering Council, to discuss and provide input on the feasibility and cost of including an automatic dispatchable location with a 988 call levitra in canada brand at a forthcoming meeting.

We also take this opportunity to clarify the 988 implementation date, as well as the effective date of the designation of 988 as the universal telephone number within the United States for the national suicide prevention and mental health crisis hotline. Prior to enactment of the Suicide Hotline Act, the Commission designated 988 as the universal telephone number within the United States for the national suicide prevention and mental health crisis hotline in a Report and Order released on July 17, 2020, and that became effective on October 16, 2020. (85 FR 57767 (Sept levitra in canada brand. 16, 2020)). The Report and Order also set an implementation date of July 16, 2022 for all telecommunications carriers, interconnected voice over internet Protocol (VoIP) providers, and one-way Start Printed Page 79015VoIP providers to make any network changes necessary to ensure that users can dial 988 to reach the Lifeline.

The Suicide Hotline Act states that the 988 designation shall take effect one year after enactment, but levitra in canada brand is silent on implementation. The implementation deadline set forth in the Report and Order “to allow sufficient time—but no more time than necessary—for covered providers to meet the challenges of implementing 10-digit dialing in 87 area codes and of making necessary changes to their switches” therefore remains unchanged by the Suicide Hotline Act. Although the Suicide Hotline Act does not mention the Commission's earlier designation of 988 in the Report and Order, we construe Congress's independent designation of 988 in the Suicide Hotline Act as a ratification of the Commission's designation. Accordingly, the Report and Order is unaffected by the Suicide Hotline Act, except that we now clarify that the designation of 988 as the universal telephone number within the United States for the national suicide prevention and mental health crisis hotline will take effect on October 17, 2021, which is one year after the date of enactment of the Suicide Hotline Act, and not on October 16, 2020 levitra in canada brand. This clarification is necessary to make the Report and Order consistent with Congress's clear intent that designation become effective one year after the date of enactment, as stated in section 3 of the Suicide Hotline Act.

To the extent necessary, we hereby waive the October 16, 2020 effective date of the designation in the Report and Order until one year after the date levitra in canada brand of enactment of the Suicide Hotline Act. This waiver is necessary to effectuate Congress's intent, and we are aware of no harm to the public interest that would be caused by adopting the effective date that Congress prescribed in the Suicide Hotline Act. The proceeding this Notice initiates shall be treated as a “permit-but-disclose” proceeding in accordance with the Commission's ex parte rules. Persons making ex parte presentations levitra in canada brand must file a copy of any written presentation or a memorandum summarizing any oral presentation within two business days after the presentation (unless a different deadline applicable to the Sunshine period applies). Persons making oral ex parte presentations are reminded that memoranda summarizing the presentation must (1) list all persons attending or otherwise participating in the meeting at which the ex parte presentation was made, and (2) summarize all data presented and arguments made during the presentation.

If the presentation consisted in whole or in part of the presentation of data or arguments already reflected in the presenter's written comments, memoranda or other filings in the proceeding, the presenter may provide citations to such data or arguments in his or her prior comments, memoranda, or other filings (specifying the relevant page and/or paragraph numbers where such data or arguments can be found) in lieu of summarizing them in the memorandum. Documents shown or levitra in canada brand given to Commission staff during ex parte meetings are deemed to be written ex parte presentations and must be filed consistent with rule 1.1206(b). In proceedings governed by rule 1.49(f) or for which the Commission has made available a method of electronic filing, written ex parte presentations and memoranda summarizing oral ex parte presentations, and all attachments thereto, must be filed through the electronic comment filing system available for that proceeding, and must be filed in their native format (e.g., .doc, .xml, .ppt, searchable .pdf). Participants in this proceeding should familiarize levitra in canada brand themselves with the Commission's ex parte rules. Pursuant to sections 1.415 and 1.419 of the Commission's rules, 47 CFR 1.415, 1.419, interested parties may file comments and reply comments on or before the dates indicated on the first page of this document.

Comments may be filed using the Commission's Electronic Comment Filing System (ECFS). See Electronic Filing of levitra in canada brand Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998). Electronic Filers. Comments may be filed electronically using the internet by accessing the ECFS. Http://apps.fcc.gov/​ecfs/​.

Paper Filers. Parties who choose to file by paper must file an original and one copy of each filing. Filings can be sent by commercial overnight courier, or by first-class or overnight U.S. Postal Service mail. All filings must be addressed to the Commission's Secretary, Office of the Secretary, Federal Communications Commission.

Commercial overnight mail (other than U.S. Postal Service Express Mail and Priority Mail) must be sent to 9050 Junction Drive, Annapolis Junction, MD 20701. U.S. Postal Service first-class, Express, and Priority mail must be addressed to 45 L Street NE, Washington, DC 20554. Effective March 19, 2020, and until further notice, the Commission no longer accepts any hand or messenger delivered filings.

This is a temporary measure taken to help protect the health and safety of individuals, and to mitigate the transmission of erectile dysfunction treatment. See FCC Announces Closure of FCC Headquarters Open Window and Change in Hand-Delivery Policy, Public Notice, DA 20-304 (March 19, 2020). Https://www.fcc.gov/​document/​fcc-closes-headquarters-open-window-and-changes-hand-delivery-policy. People with Disabilities. To request materials in accessible formats for people with disabilities (braille, large print, electronic files, audio format), send an email to fcc504@fcc.gov or call the Consumer &.

Governmental Affairs Bureau at 202-418-0530 (voice), 202-418-0432 (TTY). Start Signature Federal Communications Commission. Daniel Kahn, Associate Bureau Chief, Wireline Competition Bureau. End Signature End Supplemental Information [FR Doc. 2020-26917 Filed 12-7-20.

Start Preamble how can i get a prescription for levitra Federal where to buy levitra online Communications Commission Notice. The National Suicide Hotline Designation Act of 2020 (Suicide Hotline Act) designates 988 as the universal telephone number within the United States for the purpose of the national suicide prevention and mental health crisis hotline system within one year after enactment of the Suicide Hotline Act. It also directs the Federal Communications where to buy levitra online Commission to submit a report on location identification. This public notice seeks comment on issues to inform the location identification report, which is due to Congress by April 17, 2021. This Public Notice also clarifies that the designation of 988 as the universal telephone number within the United States for the national suicide prevention and mental health crisis hotline will take effect on October 17, 2021, which is one year after the date of enactment of the Suicide Hotline Act, and not on October 16, 2020.

Comments are due on where to buy levitra online or before December 21, 2020 and Reply Comments are due on or before January 11, 2021. You may submit comments, identified by WC Docket No. 18-336, by any of the following methods. Federal where to buy levitra online Communications Commission's website. Http://apps.fcc.gov/​ecfs/​.

Follow the where to buy levitra online instructions for submitting comments. Mail. Federal Communications Commission, 45 L St. NE, Washington, where to buy levitra online DC 20554. People with Disabilities.

Contact the FCC to request reasonable accommodations (accessible format documents, sign language interpreters, CART, etc.) by email. FCC504@fcc.gov or phone where to buy levitra online. 202-418-0530 or TTY. 202-418-0432. Start Further Info Michelle Sclater, where to buy levitra online michelle.sclater@fcc.gov or (202) 418-0388.

End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information On October 17, 2020, the President signed the National Suicide Hotline Designation Act of 2020 into law (Suicide Hotline Act). The Suicide Hotline Act designates 988 as the universal telephone number within the United States for the purpose of the national suicide prevention and mental health crisis hotline system within one where to buy levitra online year after enactment of the Suicide Hotline Act. It also directs the Commission to submit a report on location identification. By this public notice, we seek comment on issues to inform the location identification report, which is due to Congress by April 17, 2021. Section 5 of the Suicide Hotline Act requires the Commission where to buy levitra online to submit a report to the appropriate committees “that examines the feasibility and cost of including an automatic dispatchable location that would be conveyed with a 9-8-8 call, regardless of the technological platform used and including with calls from multi-line telephone systems,” and as such, we seek comment on these issues generally.

More specifically, what is the feasibility of including location information with a 988 call?. What technical issues are involved and how can they be overcome, including with respect to multi-line telephone systems?. How long where to buy levitra online would an implementation process take?. What are the costs involved—both the financial costs and any potential risks to consumer privacy or other non-monetary costs?. We note that in addition to soliciting written public comment by this Public where to buy levitra online Notice, we will invite members of our expert advisory committee, the North American Numbering Council, to discuss and provide input on the feasibility and cost of including an automatic dispatchable location with a 988 call at a forthcoming meeting.

We also take this opportunity to clarify the 988 implementation date, as well as the effective date of the designation of 988 as the universal telephone number within the United States for the national suicide prevention and mental health crisis hotline. Prior to enactment of the Suicide Hotline Act, the Commission designated 988 as the universal telephone number within the United States for the national suicide prevention and mental health crisis hotline in a Report and Order released on July 17, 2020, and that became effective on October 16, 2020. (85 FR where to buy levitra online 57767 (Sept. 16, 2020)). The Report and Order also set an implementation date of July 16, 2022 for all telecommunications carriers, interconnected voice over internet Protocol (VoIP) providers, and one-way Start Printed Page 79015VoIP providers to make any network changes necessary to ensure that users can dial 988 to reach the Lifeline.

The Suicide Hotline Act states that the 988 designation shall where to buy levitra online take effect one year after enactment, but is silent on implementation. The implementation deadline set forth in the Report and Order “to allow sufficient time—but no more time than necessary—for covered providers to meet the challenges of implementing 10-digit dialing in 87 area codes and of making necessary changes to their switches” therefore remains unchanged by the Suicide Hotline Act. Although the Suicide Hotline Act does not mention the Commission's earlier designation of 988 in the Report and Order, we construe Congress's independent designation of 988 in the Suicide Hotline Act as a ratification of the Commission's designation. Accordingly, the Report and Order is unaffected by the Suicide Hotline Act, except that we now clarify that the designation of 988 as the universal telephone number within the United States for the national suicide prevention and mental health crisis hotline will take effect on October 17, 2021, which is http://wvlpac.com/2018-county-candidate-survey/ one year after the date of enactment where to buy levitra online of the Suicide Hotline Act, and not on October 16, 2020. This clarification is necessary to make the Report and Order consistent with Congress's clear intent that designation become effective one year after the date of enactment, as stated in section 3 of the Suicide Hotline Act.

To the extent necessary, we hereby waive the October 16, 2020 where to buy levitra online effective date of the designation in the Report and Order until one year after the date of enactment of the Suicide Hotline Act. This waiver is necessary to effectuate Congress's intent, and we are aware of no harm to the public interest that would be caused by adopting the effective date that Congress prescribed in the Suicide Hotline Act. The proceeding this Notice initiates shall be treated as a “permit-but-disclose” proceeding in accordance with the Commission's ex parte rules. Persons making ex parte presentations must file where to buy levitra online a copy of any written presentation or a memorandum summarizing any oral presentation within two business days after the presentation (unless a different deadline applicable to the Sunshine period applies). Persons making oral ex parte presentations are reminded that memoranda summarizing the presentation must (1) list all persons attending or otherwise participating in the meeting at which the ex parte presentation was made, and (2) summarize all data presented and arguments made during the presentation.

If the presentation consisted in whole or in part of the presentation of data or arguments already reflected in the presenter's written comments, memoranda or other filings in the proceeding, the presenter may provide citations to such data or arguments in his or her prior comments, memoranda, or other filings (specifying the relevant page and/or paragraph numbers where such data or arguments can be found) in lieu of summarizing them in the memorandum. Documents shown or given to Commission staff during ex parte meetings are deemed to be written ex parte presentations where to buy levitra online and must be filed consistent with rule 1.1206(b). In proceedings governed by rule 1.49(f) or for which the Commission has made available a method of electronic filing, written ex parte presentations and memoranda summarizing oral ex parte presentations, and all attachments thereto, must be filed through the electronic comment filing system available for that proceeding, and must be filed in their native format (e.g., .doc, .xml, .ppt, searchable .pdf). Participants in this proceeding should familiarize themselves where to buy levitra online with the Commission's ex parte rules. Pursuant to sections 1.415 and 1.419 of the Commission's rules, 47 CFR 1.415, 1.419, interested parties may file comments and reply comments on or before the dates indicated on the first page of this document.

Comments may be filed using the Commission's Electronic Comment Filing System (ECFS). See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 where to buy levitra online FR 24121 (1998). Electronic Filers. Comments may be filed electronically using the internet by accessing the ECFS. Http://apps.fcc.gov/​ecfs/​.

Paper Filers. Parties who choose to file by paper must file an original and one copy of each filing. Filings can be sent by commercial overnight courier, or by first-class or overnight U.S. Postal Service mail. All filings must be addressed to the Commission's Secretary, Office of the Secretary, Federal Communications Commission.

Commercial overnight mail (other than U.S. Postal Service Express Mail and Priority Mail) must be sent to 9050 Junction Drive, Annapolis Junction, MD 20701. U.S. Postal Service first-class, Express, and Priority mail must be addressed to 45 L Street NE, Washington, DC 20554. Effective March 19, 2020, and until further notice, the Commission no longer accepts any hand or messenger delivered filings.

This is a temporary measure taken to help protect the health and safety of individuals, and to mitigate the transmission of erectile dysfunction treatment. See FCC Announces Closure of FCC Headquarters Open Window and Change in Hand-Delivery Policy, Public Notice, DA 20-304 (March 19, 2020). Https://www.fcc.gov/​document/​fcc-closes-headquarters-open-window-and-changes-hand-delivery-policy. People with Disabilities. To request materials in accessible formats for people with disabilities (braille, large print, electronic files, audio format), send an email to fcc504@fcc.gov or call the Consumer &.

Governmental Affairs Bureau at 202-418-0530 (voice), 202-418-0432 (TTY). Start Signature Federal Communications Commission. Daniel Kahn, Associate Bureau Chief, Wireline Competition Bureau. End Signature End Supplemental Information [FR Doc. 2020-26917 Filed 12-7-20.

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How to cite this article:Singh levitra professional 20mg OP. Psychiatry research in India. Closing the research gap levitra professional 20mg. Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62:615-6Research is an important aspect of the growth and development of medical science. Research in India in general and medical research in particular is always being criticized for lack of innovation and originality required for the delivery of levitra professional 20mg health services suitable to Indian conditions.

Even the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) which is a centrally funded frontier organization for conducting medical research couldn't avert criticism. It has been criticized heavily for not producing quality research papers which are pioneering, ground breaking, or pragmatic solutions for health issues plaguing India. In the words of a leading daily, The ICMR could not even list one practical application of its hundreds of research papers levitra professional 20mg published in various national and international research journals which helped cure any disease, or diagnose it with better accuracy or in less time, or even one new basic, applied or clinical research or innovation that opened a new frontier of scientific knowledge.[1]This clearly indicates that the health research output of ICMR is not up to the mark and is not commensurate with the magnitude of the disease burden in India. According to the 12th Plan Report, the country contributes to a fifth of the world's share of diseases. The research conducted elsewhere may not be generalized to the Indian population owing to differences levitra professional 20mg in biology, health-care systems, health practices, culture, and socioeconomic standards.

Questions which are pertinent and specific to the Indian context may not be answered and will remain understudied. One of the vital elements in improving this situation is the need for relevant research base that would equip policymakers to take informed health policy decisions.The Parliamentary Standing Committee on Health and Family Welfare in the 100th report on Demand for Grants (2017–2018) of the Department of Health Research observed that “the biomedical research output needs to be augmented substantially to cater to the health challenges faced by the country.”[1]Among the various reasons, lack of fund, infrastructure, and resources is the prime cause which is glaringly evident from the inadequate budget allocation for biomedical research. While ICMR has a budget of 232 million dollars per year on health research, it is zilch in comparison to the annual budget expenditure levitra professional 20mg of the National Institute of Health, USA, on biomedical research which is 32 billion dollars.The lacuna of quality research is not merely due to lack of funds. There are other important issues which need to be considered and sorted out to end the status quo. Some of the factors which need our immediate attention are:Lack of research training and teachingImproper allocation of research levitra professional 20mg facilitiesLack of information about research work happening globallyLack of promotion, motivation, commitment, and passion in the field of researchClinicians being overburdened with patientsLack of collaboration between medical colleges and established research institutesLack of continuity of research in successive batches of postgraduate (PG) students, leading to wastage of previous research and resourcesDifficulty in the application of basic biomedical research into pragmatic intervention solutions due to lack of interdisciplinary technological support/collaboration between basic scientists, clinicians, and technological experts.Majority of the biomedical research in India are conducted in medical institutions.

The majority of these are done as thesis submission for fulfillment of the requirement of PG degree. From 2015 onward, publication of levitra professional 20mg papers had been made an obligatory requirement for promotion of faculty to higher posts. Although it offered a unique opportunity for training of residents and stimulus for research, it failed to translate into production of quality research work as thesis was limited by time and it had to be done with other clinical and academic duties.While the top four medical colleges, namely AIIMS, New Delhi. PGIMER, Chandigarh. CMC, Vellore levitra professional 20mg.

And SGIMS, Lucknow are among the top ten medical institutions in terms of publication in peer-reviewed journals, around 332 (57.3%) medical colleges have no research paper published in a decade between 2004 and 2014.[2]The research in psychiatry is realistically dominated by major research institutes which are doing commendable work, but there is a substantial lack of contemporary research originating from other centers. Dr. Chittaranjan Andrade (NIMHANS, Bengaluru) and Dr. K Jacob (CMC, Vellore) recently figured in the list of top 2% psychiatry researchers in the world from India in psychiatry.[3] Most of the research conducted in the field of psychiatry are limited to caregivers' burden, pathways of care, and other topics which can be done in limited resources available to psychiatry departments. While all these areas of work are important in providing proper care and treatment, there is overabundance of research in these areas.The Government of India is aggressively looking forward to enhancing the quality of research and is embarking on an ambitious project of purchasing all major journals and providing free access to universities across the country.

The India Genome Project started in January, 2020, is a good example of collaboration. While all these actions are laudable, a lot more needs to be done. Following are some measures which will reduce the gap:Research proposals at the level of protocol can be guided and mentored by institutes. Academic committees of different zones and journals can help in this endeavorBreaking the cubicles by establishing a collaboration between medical colleges and various institutes. While there is a lack of resources available in individual departments, there are universities and institutes with excellent infrastructure.

They are not aware of the requirements of the field of psychiatry and research questions. Creation of an alliance will enhance the quality of research work. Some of such institutes include Centre for Neuroscience, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru. CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi. And National Institute of Biomedical Genomics, KalyaniInitiation and establishment of interactive and stable relationships between basic scientists and clinical and technological experts will enhance the quality of research work and will lead to translation of basic biomedical research into real-time applications.

For example, work on artificial intelligence for mental health. Development of Apps by IITs. Genome India Project by the Government of India, genomic institutes, and social science and economic institutes working in the field of various aspects of mental healthUtilization of underutilized, well-equipped biotechnological labs of nonmedical colleges for furthering biomedical researchMedical colleges should collaborate with various universities which have labs providing testing facilities such as spectroscopy, fluoroscopy, gamma camera, scintigraphy, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, and photoacoustic imagingCreating an interactive, interdepartmental, intradepartmental, and interinstitutional partnershipBy developing a healthy and ethical partnership with industries for research and development of new drugs and interventions.Walking the talk – the psychiatric fraternity needs to be proactive and rather than lamenting about the lack of resource, we should rise to the occasion and come out with innovative and original research proposals. With the implementation of collaborative approach, we can not only enhance and improve the quality of our research but to an extent also mitigate the effects of resource crunch and come up as a leader in the field of biomedical research. References 1.2.Nagoba B, Davane M.

Current status of medical research in India. Where are we?. Walawalkar Int Med J 2017;4:66-71. 3.Ioannidis JP, Boyack KW, Baas J. Updated science-wide author databases of standardized citation indicators.

PLoS Biol 2020;18:e3000918. Correspondence Address:Dr. Om Prakash SinghAA 304, Ashabari Apartments, O/31, Baishnabghata, Patuli Township, Kolkata - 700 094, West Bengal IndiaSource of Support. None, Conflict of Interest. NoneDOI.

10.4103/indianjpsychiatry.indianjpsychiatry_1362_2Abstract Background. The burden of mental illness among the scheduled tribe (ST) population in India is not known clearly.Aim. The aim was to identify and appraise mental health research studies on ST population in India and collate such data to inform future research.Materials and Methods. Studies published between January 1980 and December 2018 on STs by following exclusion and inclusion criteria were selected for analysis. PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, Sociofile, Cinhal, and Google Scholar were systematically searched to identify relevant studies.

Quality of the included studies was assessed using an appraisal tool to assess the quality of cross-sectional studies and Critical Appraisal Checklist developed by Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. Studies were summarized and reported descriptively.Results. Thirty-two relevant studies were found and included in the review. Studies were categorized into the following three thematic areas. Alcohol and substance use disorders, common mental disorders and sociocultural aspects, and access to mental health-care services.

Sociocultural factors play a major role in understanding and determining mental disorders.Conclusion. This study is the first of its kind to review research on mental health among the STs. Mental health research conducted among STs in India is limited and is mostly of low-to-moderate quality. Determinants of poor mental health and interventions for addressing them need to be studied on an urgent basis.Keywords. India, mental health, scheduled tribesHow to cite this article:Devarapalli S V, Kallakuri S, Salam A, Maulik PK.

Mental health research on scheduled tribes in India. Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62:617-30 Introduction Mental health is a highly neglected area particularly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Data from community-based studies showed that about 10% of people suffer from common mental disorders (CMDs) such as depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints.[1] A systematic review of epidemiological studies between 1960 and 2009 in India reported that about 20% of the adult population in the community are affected by psychiatric disorders in the community, ranging from 9.5 to 103/1000 population, with differences in case definitions, and methods of data collection, accounting for most of the variation in estimates.[2]The scheduled tribes (ST) population is a marginalized community and live in relative social isolation with poorer health indices compared to similar nontribal populations.[3] There are an estimated 90 million STs or Adivasis in India.[4] They constitute 8.6% of the total Indian population. The distribution varies across the states and union territories of India, with the highest percentage in Lakshadweep (94.8%) followed by Mizoram (94.4%). In northeastern states, they constitute 65% or more of the total population.[5] The ST communities are identified as culturally or ethnographically unique by the Indian Constitution.

They are populations with poorer health indicators and fewer health-care facilities compared to non-ST rural populations, even when within the same state, and often live in demarcated geographical areas known as ST areas.[4]As per the National Family Health Survey, 2015–2016, the health indicators such as infant mortality rate (IMR) is 44.4, under five mortality rate (U5MR) is 57.2, and anemia in women is 59.8 for STs – one of the most disadvantaged socioeconomic groups in India, which are worse compared to other populations where IMR is 40.7, U5MR is 49.7, and anemia in women among others is 53.0 in the same areas.[6] Little research is available on the health of ST population. Tribal mental health is an ignored and neglected area in the field of health-care services. Further, little data are available about the burden of mental disorders among the tribal communities. Health research on tribal populations is poor, globally.[7] Irrespective of the data available, it is clear that they have worse health indicators and less access to health facilities.[8] Even less is known about the burden of mental disorders in ST population. It is also found that the traditional livelihood system of the STs came into conflict with the forces of modernization, resulting not only in the loss of customary rights over the livelihood resources but also in subordination and further, developing low self-esteem, causing great psychological stress.[4] This community has poor health infrastructure and even less mental health resources, and the situation is worse when compared to other communities living in similar areas.[9],[10]Only 15%–25% of those affected with mental disorders in LMICs receive any treatment for their mental illness,[11] resulting in a large “treatment gap.”[12] Treatment gaps are more in rural populations,[13] especially in ST communities in India, which have particularly poor infrastructure and resources for health-care delivery in general, and almost no capacity for providing mental health care.[14]The aim of this systematic review was to explore the extent and nature of mental health research on ST population in India and to identify gaps and inform future research.

Materials and Methods Search strategyWe searched major databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, Sociofile, Cinhal, and Google Scholar) and made hand searches from January 1980 to December 2018 to identify relevant literature. Hand search refers to searching through medical journals which are not indexed in the major electronic databases such as Embase, for instance, searching for Indian journals in IndMed database as most of these journals are not available in major databases. Physical search refers to searching the journals that were not available online or were not available online during the study years. We used relevant Medical Subject Heading and key terms in our search strategy, as follows. €œMental health,” “Mental disorders,” “Mental illness,” “Psychiatry,” “Scheduled Tribe” OR “Tribe” OR “Tribal Population” OR “Indigenous population,” “India,” “Psych*” (Psychiatric, psychological, psychosis).Inclusion criteriaStudies published between January 1980 and December 2018 were included.

Studies on mental disorders were included only when they focused on ST population. Both qualitative and quantitative studies on mental disorders of ST population only were included in the analysis.Exclusion criteriaStudies without any primary data and which are merely overviews and commentaries and those not focused on ST population were excluded from the analysis.Data management and analysisTwo researchers (SD and SK) initially screened the title and abstract of each record to identify relevant papers and subsequently screened full text of those relevant papers. Any disagreements between the researchers were resolved by discussion or by consulting with an adjudicator (PKM). From each study, data were extracted on objectives, study design, study population, study duration, interventions (if applicable), outcomes, and results. Quality of the included studies was assessed, independently by three researchers (SD, SK, and AS), using Critical Appraisal Checklist developed by Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP).[15] After a thorough qualitative assessment, all quantitative data were generated and tabulated.

A narrative description of the studies is provided in [Table 1] using some broad categories. Results Search resultsOur search retrieved 2306 records (which included hand-searched articles), of which after removing duplicates, title and abstracts of 2278 records were screened. Of these, 178 studies were deemed as potentially relevant and were reviewed in detail. Finally, we excluded 146 irrelevant studies and 32 studies were included in the review [Figure 1].Quality of the included studiesSummary of quality assessment of the included studies is reported in [Table 2]. Overall, nine studies were of poor quality, twenty were of moderate quality, and three studies were of high quality.

The CASP shows that out of the 32 studies, the sample size of 21 studies was not representative, sample size of 7 studies was not justified, risk factors were not identified in 28 studies, methods used were not sufficiently described to repeat them in 24 studies, and nonresponse reasons were not addressed in 24 studies. The most common reasons for studies to be of poor-quality included sample size not justified. Sample is not representative. Nonresponse not addressed. Risk factors not measured correctly.

And methods used were not sufficiently described to repeat them. Studies under the moderate quality did not have a representative sample. Non-responders categories was not addressed. Risk factors were not measured correctly. And methods used were not sufficiently described to allow the study to be replicated by other researchers.The included studies covered three broad categories.

Alcohol and substance use disorders, CMD (depression, anxiety, stress, and suicide risk), socio-cultural aspects, and access to mental health services.Alcohol and substance use disordersFive studies reviewed the consumption of alcohol and opioid. In an ethnographic study conducted in three western districts in Rajasthan, 200 opium users were interviewed. Opium consumption was common among both younger and older males during nonharvest seasons. The common causes for using opium were relief of anxiety related to crop failure due to drought, stress, to get a high, be part of peers, and for increased sexual performance.[16]In a study conducted in Arunachal Pradesh involving a population of more than 5000 individuals, alcohol use was present in 30% and opium use in about 5% adults.[17] Contrary to that study, in Rajasthan, the prevalence of opium use was more in women and socioeconomic factors such as occupation, education, and marital status were associated with opium use.[16] The prevalence of opium use increased with age in both sexes, decreased with increasing education level, and increased with employment. It was observed that wages were used to buy opium.

In the entire region of Chamlang district of Arunachal Pradesh, female substance users were almost half of the males among ST population.[17] Types of substance used were tobacco, alcohol, and opium. Among tobacco users, oral tobacco use was higher than smoking. The prevalence of tobacco use was higher among males, but the prevalence of alcohol use was higher in females, probably due to increased access to homemade rice brew generally prepared by women. This study is unique in terms of finding a strong association with religion and culture with substance use.[18]Alcohol consumption among Paniyas of Wayanad district in Kerala is perceived as a male activity, with many younger people consuming it than earlier. A study concluded that alcohol consumption among them was less of a “choice” than a result of their conditions operating through different mechanisms.

In the past, drinking was traditionally common among elderly males, however the consumption pattern has changed as a significant number of younger men are now drinking. Drinking was clustered within families as fathers and sons drank together. Alcohol is easily accessible as government itself provides opportunities. Some employers would provide alcohol as an incentive to attract Paniya men to work for them.[19]In a study from Jharkhand, several ST community members cited reasons associated with social enhancement and coping with distressing emotions rather than individual enhancement, as a reason for consuming alcohol. Societal acceptance of drinking alcohol and peer pressure, as well as high emotional problems, appeared to be the major etiology leading to higher prevalence of substance dependence in tribal communities.[20] Another study found high life time alcohol use prevalence, and the reasons mentioned were increased poverty, illiteracy, increased stress, and peer pressure.[21] A household survey from Chamlang district of Arunachal Pradesh revealed that there was a strong association between opium use and age, occupation, marital status, religion, and ethnicity among both the sexes of STs, particularly among Singhpho and Khamti.[15] The average age of onset of tobacco use was found to be 16.4 years for smoked and 17.5 years for smokeless forms in one study.[22]Common mental disorders and socio-cultural aspectsSuicide was more common among Idu Mishmi in Roing and Anini districts of Arunachal Pradesh state (14.2%) compared to the urban population in general (0.4%–4.2%).

Suicides were associated with depression, anxiety, alcoholism, and eating disorders. Of all the factors, depression was significantly high in people who attempted suicide.[24] About 5% out of 5007 people from thirty villages comprising ST suffered from CMDs in a study from West Godavari district in rural Andhra Pradesh. CMDs were defined as moderate/severe depression and/or anxiety, stress, and increased suicidal risk. Women had a higher prevalence of depression, but this may be due to the cultural norms, as men are less likely to express symptoms of depression or anxiety, which leads to underreporting. Marital status, education, and age were prominently associated with CMD.[14] In another study, gender, illiteracy, infant mortality in the household, having <3 adults living in the household, large family size with >four children, morbidity, and having two or more life events in the last year were associated with increased prevalence of CMD.[24] Urban and rural ST from the same community of Bhutias of Sikkim were examined, and it was found that the urban population experienced higher perceived stress compared to their rural counterparts.[25] Age, current use of alcohol, poor educational status, marital status, social groups, and comorbidities were the main determinants of tobacco use and nicotine dependence in a study from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.[22] A study conducted among adolescents in the schools of rural areas of Ranchi district in Jharkhand revealed that about 5% children from the ST communities had emotional symptoms, 9.6% children had conduct problems, 4.2% had hyperactivity, and 1.4% had significant peer problems.[27] A study conducted among the female school teachers in Jharkhand examined the effects of stress, marital status, and ethnicity upon the mental health of school teachers.

The study found that among the three factors namely stress, marital status, and ethnicity, ethnicity was found to affect mental health of the school teachers most. It found a positive relationship between mental health and socioeconomic status, with an inverse relationship showing that as income increased, the prevalence of depression decreased.[28] A study among Ao-Nagas in Nagaland found that 74.6% of the population attributed mental health problems to psycho-social factors and a considerable proportion chose a psychiatrist or psychologist to overcome the problem. However, 15.4% attributed mental disorders to evil spirits. About 47% preferred to seek treatment with a psychiatrist and 25% preferred prayers. Nearly 10.6% wanted to seek the help of both the psychiatrist and prayer group and 4.4% preferred traditional healers.[28],[29] The prevalence of Down syndrome among the ST in Chikhalia in Barwani district of Madhya Pradesh was higher than that reported in overall India.

Three-fourth of the children were the first-born child. None of the parents of children with Down syndrome had consanguineous marriage or a history of Down syndrome, intellectual disability, or any other neurological disorder such as cerebral palsy and epilepsy in preceding generations. It is known that tribal population is highly impoverished and disadvantaged in several ways and suffer proportionately higher burden of nutritional and genetic disorders, which are potential factors for Down syndrome.[30]Access to mental health-care servicesIn a study in Ranchi district of Jharkhand, it was found that most people consulted faith healers rather than qualified medical practitioners. There are few mental health services in the regions.[31] Among ST population, there was less reliance and belief in modern medicine, and it was also not easily accessible, thus the health-care systems must be more holistic and take care of cultural and local health practices.[32]The Systematic Medical Appraisal, Referral and Treatment (SMART) Mental Health project was implemented in thirty ST villages in West Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh. The key objectives were to use task sharing, training of primary health workers, implementing evidence-based clinical decision support tools on a mobile platform, and providing mental health services to rural population.

The study included 238 adults suffering from CMD. During the intervention period, 12.6% visited the primary health-care doctors compared to only 0.8% who had sought any care for their mental disorders prior to the intervention. The study also found a significant reduction in the depression and anxiety scores at the end of intervention and improvements in stigma perceptions related to mental health.[14] A study in Gudalur and Pandalur Taluks of Nilgiri district from Tamil Nadu used low cost task shifting by providing community education and identifying and referring individuals with psychiatric problems as effective strategies for treating mental disorders in ST communities. Through the program, the health workers established a network within the village, which in turn helped the patients to interact with them freely. Consenting patients volunteered at the educational sessions to discuss their experience about the effectiveness of their treatment.

Community awareness programs altered knowledge and attitudes toward mental illness in the community.[33] A study in Nilgiri district, Tamil Nadu, found that the community had been taking responsibility of the patients with the system by providing treatment closer to home without people having to travel long distances to access care. Expenses were reduced by subsidizing the costs of medicine and ensuring free hospital admissions and referrals to the people.[34] A study on the impact of gender, socioeconomic status, and age on mental health of female factory workers in Jharkhand found that the ST women were more likely to face stress and hardship in life due to diverse economic and household responsibilities, which, in turn, severely affected their mental health.[35] Prevalence of mental health morbidity in a study from the Sunderbans delta found a positive relation with psycho-social stressors and poor quality of life. The health system in that remote area was largely managed by “quack doctors” and faith healers. Poverty, illiteracy, and detachment from the larger community helped reinforce superstitious beliefs and made them seek both mental and physical health care from faith healers.[36] In a study among students, it was found that children had difficulties in adjusting to both ethnic and mainstream culture.[27] Low family income, inadequate housing, poor sanitation, and unhealthy and unhygienic living conditions were some environmental factors contributing to poor physical and mental growth of children. It was observed that children who did not have such risk factors maintained more intimate relations with the family members.

Children belonging to the disadvantaged environment expressed their verbal, emotional need, blame, and harm avoidances more freely than their counterparts belonging to less disadvantaged backgrounds. Although disadvantaged children had poor interfamilial interaction, they had better relations with the members outside family, such as peers, friends, and neighbors.[37] Another study in Jharkhand found that epilepsy was higher among ST patients compared to non-ST patients.[31] Most patients among the ST are irregular and dropout rates are higher among them than the non-ST patients. Urbanization per se exerted no adverse influence on the mental health of a tribal community, provided it allowed preservation of ethnic and cultural practices. Women in the ST communities were less vulnerable to mental illness than men. This might be a reflection of their increased responsibilities and enhanced gender roles that are characteristic of women in many ST communities.[38] Data obtained using culturally relevant scales revealed that relocated Sahariya suffer a lot of mental health problems, which are partially explained by livelihood and poverty-related factors.

The loss of homes and displacement compromise mental health, especially the positive emotional well-being related to happiness, life satisfaction, optimism for future, and spiritual contentment. These are often not overcome even with good relocation programs focused on material compensation and livelihood re-establishment.[39] Discussion This systematic review is to our knowledge the first on mental health of ST population in India. Few studies on the mental health of ST were available. All attempts including hand searching were made to recover both published peer-reviewed papers and reports available on the website. Though we searched gray literature, it may be possible that it does not capture all articles.

Given the heterogeneity of the papers, it was not possible to do a meta-analysis, so a narrative review was done.The quality of the studies was assessed by CASP. The assessment shows that the research conducted on mental health of STs needs to be carried out more effectively. The above mentioned gaps need to be filled in future research by considering the resources effectively while conducting the studies. Mental and substance use disorders contribute majorly to the health disparities. To address this, one needs to deliver evidence-based treatments, but it is important to understand how far these interventions for the indigenous populations can incorporate cultural practices, which are essential for the development of mental health services.[30] Evidence has shown a disproportionate burden of suicide among indigenous populations in national and regional studies, and a global and systematic investigation of this topic has not been undertaken to date.

Previous reviews of suicide epidemiology among indigenous populations have tended to be less comprehensive or not systematic, and have often focused on subpopulations such as youth, high-income countries, or regions such as Oceania or the Arctic.[46] The only studies in our review which provided data on suicide were in Idu Mishmi, an isolated tribal population of North-East India, and tribal communities from Sunderban delta.[24],[37] Some reasons for suicide in these populations could be the poor identification of existing mental disorders, increased alcohol use, extreme poverty leading to increased debt and hopelessness, and lack of stable employment opportunities.[24],[37] The traditional consumption pattern of alcohol has changed due to the reasons associated with social enhancement and coping with distressing emotions rather than individual enhancement.[19],[20]Faith healers play a dominant role in treating mental disorders. There is less awareness about mental health and available mental health services and even if such knowledge is available, access is limited due to remoteness of many of these villages, and often it involves high out-of-pocket expenditure.[35] Practitioners of modern medicine can play a vital role in not only increasing awareness about mental health in the community, but also engaging with faith healers and traditional medicine practitioners to help increase their capacity to identify and manage CMDs that do not need medications and can be managed through simple “talk therapy.” Knowledge on symptoms of severe mental disorders can also help such faith healers and traditional medicine practitioners to refer cases to primary care doctors or mental health professionals.Remote settlements make it difficult for ST communities to seek mental health care. Access needs to be increased by using solutions that use training of primary health workers and nonphysician health workers, task sharing, and technology-enabled clinical decision support tools.[3] The SMART Mental Health project was delivered in the tribal areas of Andhra Pradesh using those principles and was found to be beneficial by all stakeholders.[14]Given the lack of knowledge about mental health problems among these communities, the government and nongovernmental organizations should collect and disseminate data on mental disorders among the ST communities. More research funding needs to be provided and key stakeholders should be involved in creating awareness both in the community and among policy makers to develop more projects for ST communities around mental health. Two recent meetings on tribal mental health – Round Table Meeting on Mental Health of ST Populations organized by the George Institute for Global Health, India, in 2017,[51] and the First National Conference on Tribal Mental Health organized by the Indian Psychiatric Society in Bhubaneswar in 2018 – have identified some key areas of research priority for mental health in ST communities.

A national-level policy on mental health of tribal communities or population is advocated which should be developed in consultation with key stakeholders. The Indian Psychiatric Society can play a role in coordinating research activities with support of the government which can ensure regular monitoring and dissemination of the research impact to the tribal communities. There is a need to understand how mental health symptoms are perceived in different ST communities and investigate the healing practices associated with distress/disaster/death/loss/disease. This could be done in the form of cross-sectional or cohort studies to generate proper evidence which could also include the information on prevalence, mental health morbidity, and any specific patterns associated with a specific disorder. Future research should estimate the prevalence of mental disorders in different age groups and gender, risk factors, and the influence of modernization.

Studies should develop a theoretical model to understand mental disorders and promote positive mental health within ST communities. Studies should also look at different ST communities as cultural differences exist across them, and there are also differences in socioeconomic status which impact on ability to access care.Research has shown that the impact and the benefits are amplified when research is driven by priorities that are identified by indigenous communities and involve their active participation. Their knowledge and perspectives are incorporated in processes and findings. Reporting of findings is meaningful to the communities. And indigenous groups and other key stakeholders are engaged from the outset.[47] Future research in India on ST communities should also adhere to these broad principles to ensure relevant and beneficial research, which have direct impact on the mental health of the ST communities.There is also a need to update literature related to mental health of ST population continuously.

Develop culturally appropriate validated instruments to measure mental morbidity relevant to ST population. And use qualitative research to investigate the perceptions and barriers for help-seeking behavior.[48] Conclusion The current review helps not only to collate the existing literature on the mental health of ST communities but also identify gaps in knowledge and provide some indications about the type of research that should be funded in future.Financial support and sponsorshipNil.Conflicts of interestThere are no conflicts of interest. References 1.Gururaj G, Girish N, Isaac MK. Mental. Neurological and Substance abuse disorders.

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Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. 2005. 2.Math SB, Srinivasaraju R. Indian Psychiatric epidemiological studies. Learning from the past.

Indian J Psychiatry 2010;52:S95-103. 3.Tewari A, Kallakuri S, Devarapalli S, Jha V, Patel A, Maulik PK. Process evaluation of the systematic medical appraisal, referral and treatment (SMART) mental health project in rural India. BMC Psychiatry 2017;17:385. 4.Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Government of India.

Report of the High Level Committee on Socio-economic, Health and Educational Status of Tribal Communities of India. New Delhi. Government of India. 2014. 5.Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Census of India.

New Delhi. Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner. 2011. 6.International Institute for Population Sciences and ICF. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4), 2015-16.

India, Mumbai. International Institute for Population Sciences. 2017. 7.World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2001-Mental Health.

New Understanding, New Hope. Geneva, Switzerland. World Health Organization. 2001. 8.Demyttenaere K, Bruffaerts R, Posada-Villa J, Gasquet I, Kovess V, Lepine JP, et al.

Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. JAMA 2004;291:2581-90. 9.Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Report of the Expert Committee on Tribal Health. Tribal Health in India – Bridging the Gap and a Roadmap for the Future. New Delhi.

Government of India. 2013. 10.Government of India, Rural Health Statistics 2016-17. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Statistics Division. 2017.

11.Ormel J, VonKorff M, Ustun TB, Pini S, Korten A, Oldehinkel T. Common mental disorders and disability across cultures. Results from the WHO Collaborative Study on Psychological Problems in General Health Care. JAMA 1994;272:1741-8. 12.Thornicroft G, Brohan E, Rose D, Sartorius N, Leese M, INDIGO Study Group.

Global pattern of experienced and anticipated discrimination against people with schizophrenia. A cross-sectional survey. Lancet 2009;373:408-15. 13.Armstrong G, Kermode M, Raja S, Suja S, Chandra P, Jorm AF. A mental health training program for community health workers in India.

Impact on knowledge and attitudes. Int J Ment Health Syst 2011;5:17. 14.Maulik PK, Kallakuri S, Devarapalli S, Vadlamani VS, Jha V, Patel A. Increasing use of mental health services in remote areas using mobile technology. A pre-post evaluation of the SMART Mental Health project in rural India.

J Global Health 2017;7:1-13. 15.16.Ganguly KK, Sharma HK, Krishnamachari KA. An ethnographic account of opium consumers of Rajasthan (India). Socio-medical perspective. Addiction 1995;90:9-12.

17.Chaturvedi HK, Mahanta J. Sociocultural diversity and substance use pattern in Arunachal Pradesh, India. Drug Alcohol Depend 2004;74:97-104. 18.Chaturvedi HK, Mahanta J, Bajpai RC, Pandey A. Correlates of opium use.

Retrospective analysis of a survey of tribal communities in Arunachal Pradesh, India. BMC Public Health 2013;13:325. 19.Mohindra KS, Narayana D, Anushreedha SS, Haddad S. Alcohol use and its consequences in South India. Views from a marginalised tribal population.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2011;117:70-3. 20.Sreeraj VS, Prasad S, Khess CR, Uvais NA. Reasons for substance use. A comparative study of alcohol use in tribals and non-tribals. Indian J Psychol Med 2012;34:242-6.

[PUBMED] [Full text] 21.Whiteford HA, Degenhardt L, Rehm J, Baxter AJ, Ferrari AJ, Erskine HE, et al. Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders. Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 2013;382:1575-86. 22.Janakiram C, Joseph J, Vasudevan S, Taha F, DeepanKumar CV, Venkitachalam R.

Prevalence and dependancy of tobacco use in an indigenous population of Kerala, India. Oral Hygiene and Health 2016;4:1 23.Manimunda SP, Benegal V, Sugunan AP, Jeemon P, Balakrishna N, Thennarusu K, et al. Tobacco use and nicotine dependency in a cross-sectional representative sample of 18,018 individuals in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. BMC Public Health 2012;12:515. 24.Singh PK, Singh RK, Biswas A, Rao VR.

High rate of suicide attempt and associated psychological traits in an isolated tribal population of North-East India. J Affect Dis 2013;151:673-8. 25.Sushila J. Perception of Illness and Health Care among Bhils. A Study of Udaipur District in Southern Rajasthan.

2005. 26.Sobhanjan S, Mukhopadhyay B. Perceived psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk. Observations among the Bhutias of Sikkim, India. Stress Health 2008;24:23-34.

27.Ali A, Eqbal S. Mental Health status of tribal school going adolescents. A study from rural community of Ranchi, Jharkhand. Telangana J Psychiatry 2016;2:38-41. 28.Diwan R.

Stress and mental health of tribal and non tribal female school teachers in Jharkhand, India. Int J Sci Res Publicat 2012;2:2250-3153. 29.Longkumer I, Borooah PI. Knowledge about attitudes toward mental disorders among Nagas in North East India. IOSR J Humanities Soc Sci 2013;15:41-7.

30.Lakhan R, Kishore MT. Down syndrome in tribal population in India. A field observation. J Neurosci Rural Pract 2016;7:40-3. [PUBMED] [Full text] 31.Nizamie HS, Akhtar S, Banerjee S, Goyal N.

Health care delivery model in epilepsy to reduce treatment gap. WHO study from a rural tribal population of India. Epilepsy Res Elsevier 2009;84:146-52. 32.Prabhakar H, Manoharan R. The Tribal Health Initiative model for healthcare delivery.

A clinical and epidemiological approach. Natl Med J India 2005;18:197-204. 33.Nimgaonkar AU, Menon SD. A task shifting mental health program for an impoverished rural Indian community. Asian J Psychiatr 2015;16:41-7.

34.Yalsangi M. Evaluation of a Community Mental Health Programme in a Tribal Area- South India. Achutha Menon Centre For Health Sciences Studies, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Working Paper No 12. 2012. 35.Tripathy P, Nirmala N, Sarah B, Rajendra M, Josephine B, Shibanand R, et al.

Effect of a participatory intervention with women's groups on birth outcomes and maternal depression in Jharkhand and Orissa, India. A cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2010;375:1182-92. 36.Aparajita C, Anita KM, Arundhati R, Chetana P. Assessing Social-support network among the socio culturally disadvantaged children in India.

Early Child Develop Care 1996;121:37-47. 37.Chowdhury AN, Mondal R, Brahma A, Biswas MK. Eco-psychiatry and environmental conservation. Study from Sundarban Delta, India. Environ Health Insights 2008;2:61-76.

38.Jeffery GS, Chakrapani U. Eco-psychiatry and Environmental Conservation. Study from Sundarban Delta, India. Working Paper- Research Gate.net. September, 2016.

39.Ozer S, Acculturation, adaptation, and mental health among Ladakhi College Students a mixed methods study of an indigenous population. J Cross Cultl Psychol 2015;46:435-53. 40.Giri DK, Chaudhary S, Govinda M, Banerjee A, Mahto AK, Chakravorty PK. Utilization of psychiatric services by tribal population of Jharkhand through community outreach programme of RINPAS. Eastern J Psychiatry 2007;10:25-9.

41.Nandi DN, Banerjee G, Chowdhury AN, Banerjee T, Boral GC, Sen B. Urbanization and mental morbidity in certain tribal communities in West Bengal. Indian J Psychiatry 1992;34:334-9. [PUBMED] [Full text] 42.Hackett RJ, Sagdeo D, Creed FH. The physical and social associations of common mental disorder in a tribal population in South India.

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2007;42:712-5. 43.Raina SK, Raina S, Chander V, Grover A, Singh S, Bhardwaj A. Development of a cognitive screening instrument for tribal elderly population of Himalayan region in northern India. J Neurosci Rural Pract 2013;4:147-53. [PUBMED] [Full text] 44.Raina SK, Raina S, Chander V, Grover A, Singh S, Bhardwaj A.

Identifying risk for dementia across populations. A study on the prevalence of dementia in tribal elderly population of Himalayan region in Northern India. Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2013;16:640-4. [PUBMED] [Full text] 45.Raina SK, Chander V, Raina S, Kumar D. Feasibility of using everyday abilities scale of India as alternative to mental state examination as a screen in two-phase survey estimating the prevalence of dementia in largely illiterate Indian population.

Indian J Psychiatry 2016;58:459-61. [PUBMED] [Full text] 46.Diwan R. Mental health of tribal male-female factory workers in Jharkhand. IJAIR 2012;2278:234-42. 47.Banerjee T, Mukherjee SP, Nandi DN, Banerjee G, Mukherjee A, Sen B, et al.

Psychiatric morbidity in an urbanized tribal (Santal) community - A field survey. Indian J Psychiatry 1986;28:243-8. [PUBMED] [Full text] 48.Leske S, Harris MG, Charlson FJ, Ferrari AJ, Baxter AJ, Logan JM, et al. Systematic review of interventions for Indigenous adults with mental and substance use disorders in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2016;50:1040-54.

49.Pollock NJ, Naicker K, Loro A, Mulay S, Colman I. Global incidence of suicide among Indigenous peoples. A systematic review. BMC Med 2018;16:145. 50.Silburn K, et al.

Evaluation of the Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal Health (Australian institute for primary care, trans.). Melbourne. LaTrobe University. 2010. 51.

Correspondence Address:S V. Siddhardh Kumar DevarapalliGeorge Institute for Global Health, Plot No. 57, Second Floor, Corporation Bank Building, Nagarjuna Circle, Punjagutta, Hyderabad - 500 082, Telangana IndiaSource of Support. None, Conflict of Interest. NoneDOI.

10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_136_19 Figures [Figure 1] Tables [Table 1], [Table 2].

How to where to buy levitra online cite this article:Singh OP. Psychiatry research in India. Closing the research where to buy levitra online gap. Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62:615-6Research is an important aspect of the growth and development of medical science.

Research in India in general and medical research in particular is always being criticized for lack of innovation and originality required where to buy levitra online for the delivery of health services suitable to Indian conditions. Even the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) which is a centrally funded frontier organization for conducting medical research couldn't avert criticism. It has been criticized heavily for not producing quality research papers which are pioneering, ground breaking, or pragmatic solutions for health issues plaguing India. In the words of a leading daily, The ICMR could not even list one practical application of its hundreds of research papers published in various national and international where to buy levitra online research journals which helped cure any disease, or diagnose it with better accuracy or in less time, or even one new basic, applied or clinical research or innovation that opened a new frontier of scientific knowledge.[1]This clearly indicates that the health research output of ICMR is not up to the mark and is not commensurate with the magnitude of the disease burden in India.

According to the 12th Plan Report, the country contributes to a fifth of the world's share of diseases. The research conducted elsewhere may not be generalized to where to buy levitra online the Indian population owing to differences in biology, health-care systems, health practices, culture, and socioeconomic standards. Questions which are pertinent and specific to the Indian context may not be answered and will remain understudied. One of the vital elements in improving this situation is the need for relevant research base that would equip policymakers to take informed health policy decisions.The Parliamentary Standing Committee on Health and Family Welfare in the 100th report on Demand for Grants (2017–2018) of the Department of Health Research observed that “the biomedical research output needs to be augmented substantially to cater to the health challenges faced by the country.”[1]Among the various reasons, lack of fund, infrastructure, and resources is the prime cause which is glaringly evident from the inadequate budget allocation for biomedical research.

While ICMR has a budget of 232 million dollars per year on health research, it is zilch in comparison to the annual budget expenditure of the National Institute of Health, USA, on biomedical research which is where to buy levitra online 32 billion dollars.The lacuna of quality research is not merely due to lack of funds. There are other important issues which need to be considered and sorted out to end the status quo. Some of the factors which need our immediate attention are:Lack of research training and teachingImproper allocation of research facilitiesLack of information about research work happening globallyLack of where to buy levitra online promotion, motivation, commitment, and passion in the field of researchClinicians being overburdened with patientsLack of collaboration between medical colleges and established research institutesLack of continuity of research in successive batches of postgraduate (PG) students, leading to wastage of previous research and resourcesDifficulty in the application of basic biomedical research into pragmatic intervention solutions due to lack of interdisciplinary technological support/collaboration between basic scientists, clinicians, and technological experts.Majority of the biomedical research in India are conducted in medical institutions. The majority of these are done as thesis submission for fulfillment of the requirement of PG degree.

From 2015 onward, publication of where to buy levitra online papers had been made an obligatory requirement for promotion of faculty to higher posts. Although it offered a unique opportunity for training of residents and stimulus for research, it failed to translate into production of quality research work as thesis was limited by time and it had to be done with other clinical and academic duties.While the top four medical colleges, namely AIIMS, New Delhi. PGIMER, Chandigarh. CMC, Vellore where to buy levitra online.

And SGIMS, Lucknow are among the top ten medical institutions in terms of publication in peer-reviewed journals, around 332 (57.3%) medical colleges have no research paper published in a decade between 2004 and 2014.[2]The research in psychiatry is realistically dominated by major research institutes which are doing commendable work, but there is a substantial lack of contemporary research originating from other centers. Dr. Chittaranjan Andrade (NIMHANS, Bengaluru) and Dr. K Jacob (CMC, Vellore) recently figured in the list of top 2% psychiatry researchers in the world from India in psychiatry.[3] Most of the research conducted in the field of psychiatry are limited to caregivers' burden, pathways of care, and other topics which can be done in limited resources available to psychiatry departments.

While all these areas of work are important in providing proper care and treatment, there is overabundance of research in these areas.The Government of India is aggressively looking forward to enhancing the quality of research and is embarking on an ambitious project of purchasing all major journals and providing free access to universities across the country. The India Genome Project started in January, 2020, is a good example of collaboration. While all these actions are laudable, a lot more needs to be done. Following are some measures which will reduce the gap:Research proposals at the level of protocol can be guided and mentored by institutes.

Academic committees of different zones and journals can help in this endeavorBreaking the cubicles by establishing a collaboration between medical colleges and various institutes. While there is a lack of resources available in individual departments, there are universities and institutes with excellent infrastructure. They are not aware of the requirements of the field of psychiatry and research questions. Creation of an alliance will enhance the quality of research work.

Some of such institutes include Centre for Neuroscience, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru. CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi. And National Institute of Biomedical Genomics, KalyaniInitiation and establishment of interactive and stable relationships between basic scientists and clinical and technological experts will enhance the quality of research work and will lead to translation of basic biomedical research into real-time applications. For example, work on artificial intelligence for mental health.

Development of Apps by IITs. Genome India Project by the Government of India, genomic institutes, and social science and economic institutes working in the field of various aspects of mental healthUtilization of underutilized, well-equipped biotechnological labs of nonmedical colleges for furthering biomedical researchMedical colleges should collaborate with various universities which have labs providing testing facilities such as spectroscopy, fluoroscopy, gamma camera, scintigraphy, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, and photoacoustic imagingCreating an interactive, interdepartmental, intradepartmental, and interinstitutional partnershipBy developing a healthy and ethical partnership with industries for research and development of new drugs and interventions.Walking the talk – the psychiatric fraternity needs to be proactive and rather than lamenting about the lack of resource, we should rise to the occasion and come out with innovative and original research proposals. With the implementation of collaborative approach, we can not only enhance and improve the quality of our research but to an extent also mitigate the effects of resource crunch and come up as a leader in the field of biomedical research. References 1.2.Nagoba B, Davane M.

Current status of medical research in India. Where are we?. Walawalkar Int Med J 2017;4:66-71. 3.Ioannidis JP, Boyack KW, Baas J.

Updated science-wide author databases of standardized citation indicators. PLoS Biol 2020;18:e3000918. Correspondence Address:Dr. Om Prakash SinghAA 304, Ashabari Apartments, O/31, Baishnabghata, Patuli Township, Kolkata - 700 094, West Bengal IndiaSource of Support.

None, Conflict of Interest. NoneDOI. 10.4103/indianjpsychiatry.indianjpsychiatry_1362_2Abstract Background. The burden of mental illness among the scheduled tribe (ST) population in India is not known clearly.Aim.

The aim was to identify and appraise mental health research studies on ST population in India and collate such data to inform future research.Materials and Methods. Studies published between January 1980 and December 2018 on STs by following exclusion and inclusion criteria were selected for analysis. PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, Sociofile, Cinhal, and Google Scholar were systematically searched to identify relevant studies. Quality of the included studies was assessed using an appraisal tool to assess the quality of cross-sectional studies and Critical Appraisal Checklist developed by Critical Appraisal Skills Programme.

Studies were summarized and reported descriptively.Results. Thirty-two relevant studies were found and included in the review. Studies were categorized into the following three thematic areas. Alcohol and substance use disorders, common mental disorders and sociocultural aspects, and access to mental health-care services.

Sociocultural factors play a major role in understanding and determining mental disorders.Conclusion. This study is the first of its kind to review research on mental health among the STs. Mental health research conducted among STs in India is limited and is mostly of low-to-moderate quality. Determinants of poor mental health and interventions for addressing them need to be studied on an urgent basis.Keywords.

India, mental health, scheduled tribesHow to cite this article:Devarapalli S V, Kallakuri S, Salam A, Maulik PK. Mental health research on scheduled tribes in India. Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62:617-30 Introduction Mental health is a highly neglected area particularly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Data from community-based studies showed that about 10% of people suffer from common mental disorders (CMDs) such as depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints.[1] A systematic review of epidemiological studies between 1960 and 2009 in India reported that about 20% of the adult population in the community are affected by psychiatric disorders in the community, ranging from 9.5 to 103/1000 population, with differences in case definitions, and methods of data collection, accounting for most of the variation in estimates.[2]The scheduled tribes (ST) population is a marginalized community and live in relative social isolation with poorer health indices compared to similar nontribal populations.[3] There are an estimated 90 million STs or Adivasis in India.[4] They constitute 8.6% of the total Indian population.

The distribution varies across the states and union territories of India, with the highest percentage in Lakshadweep (94.8%) followed by Mizoram (94.4%). In northeastern states, they constitute 65% or more of the total population.[5] The ST communities are identified as culturally or ethnographically unique by the Indian Constitution. They are populations with poorer health indicators and fewer health-care facilities compared to non-ST rural populations, even when within the same state, and often live in demarcated geographical areas known as ST areas.[4]As per the National Family Health Survey, 2015–2016, the health indicators such as infant mortality rate (IMR) is 44.4, under five mortality rate (U5MR) is 57.2, and anemia in women is 59.8 for STs – one of the most disadvantaged socioeconomic groups in India, which are worse compared to other populations where IMR is 40.7, U5MR is 49.7, and anemia in women among others is 53.0 in the same areas.[6] Little research is available on the health of ST population. Tribal mental health is an ignored and neglected area in the field of health-care services.

Further, little data are available about the burden of mental disorders among the tribal communities. Health research on tribal populations is poor, globally.[7] Irrespective of the data available, it is clear that they have worse health indicators and less access to health facilities.[8] Even less is known about the burden of mental disorders in ST population. It is also found that the traditional livelihood system of the STs came into conflict with the forces of modernization, resulting not only in the loss of customary rights over the livelihood resources but also in subordination and further, developing low self-esteem, causing great psychological stress.[4] This community has poor health infrastructure and even less mental health resources, and the situation is worse when compared to other communities living in similar areas.[9],[10]Only 15%–25% of those affected with mental disorders in LMICs receive any treatment for their mental illness,[11] resulting in a large “treatment gap.”[12] Treatment gaps are more in rural populations,[13] especially in ST communities in India, which have particularly poor infrastructure and resources for health-care delivery in general, and almost no capacity for providing mental health care.[14]The aim of this systematic review was to explore the extent and nature of mental health research on ST population in India and to identify gaps and inform future research. Materials and Methods Search strategyWe searched major databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, Sociofile, Cinhal, and Google Scholar) and made hand searches from January 1980 to December 2018 to identify relevant literature.

Hand search refers to searching through medical journals which are not indexed in the major electronic databases such as Embase, for instance, searching for Indian journals in IndMed database as most of these journals are not available in major databases. Physical search refers to searching the journals that were not available online or were not available online during the study years. We used relevant Medical Subject Heading and key terms in our search strategy, as follows. €œMental health,” “Mental disorders,” “Mental illness,” “Psychiatry,” “Scheduled Tribe” OR “Tribe” OR “Tribal Population” OR “Indigenous population,” “India,” “Psych*” (Psychiatric, psychological, psychosis).Inclusion criteriaStudies published between January 1980 and December 2018 were included.

Studies on mental disorders were included only when they focused on ST population. Both qualitative and quantitative studies on mental disorders of ST population only were included in the analysis.Exclusion criteriaStudies without any primary data and which are merely overviews and commentaries and those not focused on ST population were excluded from the analysis.Data management and analysisTwo researchers (SD and SK) initially screened the title and abstract of each record to identify relevant papers and subsequently screened full text of those relevant papers. Any disagreements between the researchers were resolved by discussion or by consulting with an adjudicator (PKM). From each study, data were extracted on objectives, study design, study population, study duration, interventions (if applicable), outcomes, and results.

Quality of the included studies was assessed, independently by three researchers (SD, SK, and AS), using Critical Appraisal Checklist developed by Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP).[15] After a thorough qualitative assessment, all quantitative data were generated and tabulated. A narrative description of the studies is provided in [Table 1] using some broad categories. Results Search resultsOur search retrieved 2306 records (which included hand-searched articles), of which after removing duplicates, title and abstracts of 2278 records were screened. Of these, 178 studies were deemed as potentially relevant and were reviewed in detail.

Finally, we excluded 146 irrelevant studies and 32 studies were included in the review [Figure 1].Quality of the included studiesSummary of quality assessment of the included studies is reported in [Table 2]. Overall, nine studies were of poor quality, twenty were of moderate quality, and three studies were of high quality. The CASP shows that out of the 32 studies, the sample size of 21 studies was not representative, sample size of 7 studies was not justified, risk factors were not identified in 28 studies, methods used were not sufficiently described to repeat them in 24 studies, and nonresponse reasons were not addressed in 24 studies. The most common reasons for studies to be of poor-quality included sample size not justified.

Sample is not representative. Nonresponse not addressed. Risk factors not measured correctly. And methods used were not sufficiently described to repeat them.

Studies under the moderate quality did not have a representative sample. Non-responders categories was not addressed. Risk factors were not measured correctly. And methods used were not sufficiently described to allow the study to be replicated by other researchers.The included studies covered three broad categories.

Alcohol and substance use disorders, CMD (depression, anxiety, stress, and suicide risk), socio-cultural aspects, and access to mental health services.Alcohol and substance use disordersFive studies reviewed the consumption of alcohol and opioid. In an ethnographic study conducted in three western districts in Rajasthan, 200 opium users were interviewed. Opium consumption was common among both younger and older males during nonharvest seasons. The common causes for using opium were relief of anxiety related to crop failure due to drought, stress, to get a high, be part of peers, and for increased sexual performance.[16]In a study conducted in Arunachal Pradesh involving a population of more than 5000 individuals, alcohol use was present in 30% and opium use in about 5% adults.[17] Contrary to that study, in Rajasthan, the prevalence of opium use was more in women and socioeconomic factors such as occupation, education, and marital status were associated with opium use.[16] The prevalence of opium use increased with age in both sexes, decreased with increasing education level, and increased with employment.

It was observed that wages were used to buy opium. In the entire region of Chamlang district of Arunachal Pradesh, female substance users were almost half of the males among ST population.[17] Types of substance used were tobacco, alcohol, and opium. Among tobacco users, oral tobacco use was higher than smoking. The prevalence of tobacco use was higher among males, but the prevalence of alcohol use was higher in females, probably due to increased access to homemade rice brew generally prepared by women.

This study is unique in terms of finding a strong association with religion and culture with substance use.[18]Alcohol consumption among Paniyas of Wayanad district in Kerala is perceived as a male activity, with many younger people consuming it than earlier. A study concluded that alcohol consumption among them was less of a “choice” than a result of their conditions operating through different mechanisms. In the past, drinking was traditionally common among elderly males, however the consumption pattern has changed as a significant number of younger men are now drinking. Drinking was clustered within families as fathers and sons drank together.

Alcohol is easily accessible as government itself provides opportunities. Some employers would provide alcohol as an incentive to attract Paniya men to work for them.[19]In a study from Jharkhand, several ST community members cited reasons associated with social enhancement and coping with distressing emotions rather than individual enhancement, as a reason for consuming alcohol. Societal acceptance of drinking alcohol and peer pressure, as well as high emotional problems, appeared to be the major etiology leading to higher prevalence of substance dependence in tribal communities.[20] Another study found high life time alcohol use prevalence, and the reasons mentioned were increased poverty, illiteracy, increased stress, and peer pressure.[21] A household survey from Chamlang district of Arunachal Pradesh revealed that there was a strong association between opium use and age, occupation, marital status, religion, and ethnicity among both the sexes of STs, particularly among Singhpho and Khamti.[15] The average age of onset of tobacco use was found to be 16.4 years for smoked and 17.5 years for smokeless forms in one study.[22]Common mental disorders and socio-cultural aspectsSuicide was more common among Idu Mishmi in Roing and Anini districts of Arunachal Pradesh state (14.2%) compared to the urban population in general (0.4%–4.2%). Suicides were associated with depression, anxiety, alcoholism, and eating disorders.

Of all the factors, depression was significantly high in people who attempted suicide.[24] About 5% out of 5007 people from thirty villages comprising ST suffered from CMDs in a study from West Godavari district in rural Andhra Pradesh. CMDs were defined as moderate/severe depression and/or anxiety, stress, and increased suicidal risk. Women had a higher prevalence of depression, but this may be due to the cultural norms, as men are less likely to express symptoms of depression or anxiety, which leads to underreporting. Marital status, education, and age were prominently associated with CMD.[14] In another study, gender, illiteracy, infant mortality in the household, having <3 adults living in the household, large family size with >four children, morbidity, and having two or more life events in the last year were associated with increased prevalence of CMD.[24] Urban and rural ST from the same community of Bhutias of Sikkim were examined, and it was found that the urban population experienced higher perceived stress compared to their rural counterparts.[25] Age, current use of alcohol, poor educational status, marital status, social groups, and comorbidities were the main determinants of tobacco use and nicotine dependence in a study from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.[22] A study conducted among adolescents in the schools of rural areas of Ranchi district in Jharkhand revealed that about 5% children from the ST communities had emotional symptoms, 9.6% children had conduct problems, 4.2% had hyperactivity, and 1.4% had significant peer problems.[27] A study conducted among the female school teachers in Jharkhand examined the effects of stress, marital status, and ethnicity upon the mental health of school teachers.

The study found that among the three factors namely stress, marital status, and ethnicity, ethnicity was found to affect mental health of the school teachers most. It found a positive relationship between mental health and socioeconomic status, with an inverse relationship showing that as income increased, the prevalence of depression decreased.[28] A study among Ao-Nagas in Nagaland found that 74.6% of the population attributed mental health problems to psycho-social factors and a considerable proportion chose a psychiatrist or psychologist to overcome the problem. However, 15.4% attributed mental disorders to evil spirits. About 47% preferred to seek treatment with a psychiatrist and 25% preferred prayers.

Nearly 10.6% wanted to seek the help of both the psychiatrist and prayer group and 4.4% preferred traditional healers.[28],[29] The prevalence of Down syndrome among the ST in Chikhalia in Barwani district of Madhya Pradesh was higher than that reported in overall India. Three-fourth of the children were the first-born child. None of the parents of children with Down syndrome had consanguineous marriage or a history of Down syndrome, intellectual disability, or any other neurological disorder such as cerebral palsy and epilepsy in preceding generations. It is known that tribal population is highly impoverished and disadvantaged in several ways and suffer proportionately higher burden of nutritional and genetic disorders, which are potential factors for Down syndrome.[30]Access to mental health-care servicesIn a study in Ranchi district of Jharkhand, it was found that most people consulted faith healers rather than qualified medical practitioners.

There are few mental health services in the regions.[31] Among ST population, there was less reliance and belief in modern medicine, and it was also not easily accessible, thus the health-care systems must be more holistic and take care of cultural and local health practices.[32]The Systematic Medical Appraisal, Referral and Treatment (SMART) Mental Health project was implemented in thirty ST villages in West Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh. The key objectives were to use task sharing, training of primary health workers, implementing evidence-based clinical decision support tools on a mobile platform, and providing mental health services to rural population. The study included 238 adults suffering from CMD. During the intervention period, 12.6% visited the primary health-care doctors compared to only 0.8% who had sought any care for their mental disorders prior to the intervention.

The study also found a significant reduction in the depression and anxiety scores at the end of intervention and improvements in stigma perceptions related to mental health.[14] A study in Gudalur and Pandalur Taluks of Nilgiri district from Tamil Nadu used low cost task shifting by providing community education and identifying and referring individuals with psychiatric problems as effective strategies for treating mental disorders in ST communities. Through the program, the health workers established a network within the village, which in turn helped the patients to interact with them freely. Consenting patients volunteered at the educational sessions to discuss their experience about the effectiveness of their treatment. Community awareness programs altered knowledge and attitudes toward mental illness in the community.[33] A study in Nilgiri district, Tamil Nadu, found that the community had been taking responsibility of the patients with the system by providing treatment closer to home without people having to travel long distances to access care.

Expenses were reduced by subsidizing the costs of medicine and ensuring free hospital admissions and referrals to the people.[34] A study on the impact of gender, socioeconomic status, and age on mental health of female factory workers in Jharkhand found that the ST women were more likely to face stress and hardship in life due to diverse economic and household responsibilities, which, in turn, severely affected their mental health.[35] Prevalence of mental health morbidity in a study from the Sunderbans delta found a positive relation with psycho-social stressors and poor quality of life. The health system in that remote area was largely managed by “quack doctors” and faith healers. Poverty, illiteracy, and detachment from the larger community helped reinforce superstitious beliefs and made them seek both mental and physical health care from faith healers.[36] In a study among students, it was found that children had difficulties in adjusting to both ethnic and mainstream culture.[27] Low family income, inadequate housing, poor sanitation, and unhealthy and unhygienic living conditions were some environmental factors contributing to poor physical and mental growth of children. It was observed that children who did not have such risk factors maintained more intimate relations with the family members.

Children belonging to the disadvantaged environment expressed their verbal, emotional need, blame, and harm avoidances more freely than their counterparts belonging to less disadvantaged backgrounds. Although disadvantaged children had poor interfamilial interaction, they had better relations with the members outside family, such as peers, friends, and neighbors.[37] Another study in Jharkhand found that epilepsy was higher among ST patients compared to non-ST patients.[31] Most patients among the ST are irregular and dropout rates are higher among them than the non-ST patients. Urbanization per se exerted no adverse influence on the mental health of a tribal community, provided it allowed preservation of ethnic and cultural practices. Women in the ST communities were less vulnerable to mental illness than men.

This might be a reflection of their increased responsibilities and enhanced gender roles that are characteristic of women in many ST communities.[38] Data obtained using culturally relevant scales revealed that relocated Sahariya suffer a lot of mental health problems, which are partially explained by livelihood and poverty-related factors. The loss of homes and displacement compromise mental health, especially the positive emotional well-being related to happiness, life satisfaction, optimism for future, and spiritual contentment. These are often not overcome even with good relocation programs focused on material compensation and livelihood re-establishment.[39] Discussion This systematic review is to our knowledge the first on mental health of ST population in India. Few studies on the mental health of ST were available.

All attempts including hand searching were made to recover both published peer-reviewed papers and reports available on the website. Though we searched gray literature, it may be possible that it does not capture all articles. Given the heterogeneity of the papers, it was not possible to do a meta-analysis, so a narrative review was done.The quality of the studies was assessed by CASP. The assessment shows that the research conducted on mental health of STs needs to be carried out more effectively.

The above mentioned gaps need to be filled in future research by considering the resources effectively while conducting the studies. Mental and substance use disorders contribute majorly to the health disparities. To address this, one needs to deliver evidence-based treatments, but it is important to understand how far these interventions for the indigenous populations can incorporate cultural practices, which are essential for the development of mental health services.[30] Evidence has shown a disproportionate burden of suicide among indigenous populations in national and regional studies, and a global and systematic investigation of this topic has not been undertaken to date. Previous reviews of suicide epidemiology among indigenous populations have tended to be less comprehensive or not systematic, and have often focused on subpopulations such as youth, high-income countries, or regions such as Oceania or the Arctic.[46] The only studies in our review which provided data on suicide were in Idu Mishmi, an isolated tribal population of North-East India, and tribal communities from Sunderban delta.[24],[37] Some reasons for suicide in these populations could be the poor identification of existing mental disorders, increased alcohol use, extreme poverty leading to increased debt and hopelessness, and lack of stable employment opportunities.[24],[37] The traditional consumption pattern of alcohol has changed due to the reasons associated with social enhancement and coping with distressing emotions rather than individual enhancement.[19],[20]Faith healers play a dominant role in treating mental disorders.

There is less awareness about mental health and available mental health services and even if such knowledge is available, access is limited due to remoteness of many of these villages, and often it involves high out-of-pocket expenditure.[35] Practitioners of modern medicine can play a vital role in not only increasing awareness about mental health in the community, but also engaging with faith healers and traditional medicine practitioners to help increase their capacity to identify and manage CMDs that do not need medications and can be managed through simple “talk therapy.” Knowledge on symptoms of severe mental disorders can also help such faith healers and traditional medicine practitioners to refer cases to primary care doctors or mental health professionals.Remote settlements make it difficult for ST communities to seek mental health care. Access needs to be increased by using solutions that use training of primary health workers and nonphysician health workers, task sharing, and technology-enabled clinical decision support tools.[3] The SMART Mental Health project was delivered in the tribal areas of Andhra Pradesh using those principles and was found to be beneficial by all stakeholders.[14]Given the lack of knowledge about mental health problems among these communities, the government and nongovernmental organizations should collect and disseminate data on mental disorders among the ST communities. More research funding needs to be provided and key stakeholders should be involved in creating awareness both in the community and among policy makers to develop more projects for ST communities around mental health. Two recent meetings on tribal mental health – Round Table Meeting on Mental Health of ST Populations organized by the George Institute for Global Health, India, in 2017,[51] and the First National Conference on Tribal Mental Health organized by the Indian Psychiatric Society in Bhubaneswar in 2018 – have identified some key areas of research priority for mental health in ST communities.

A national-level policy on mental health of tribal communities or population is advocated which should be developed in consultation with key stakeholders. The Indian Psychiatric Society can play a role in coordinating research activities with support of the government which can ensure regular monitoring and dissemination of the research impact to the tribal communities. There is a need to understand how mental health symptoms are perceived in different ST communities and investigate the healing practices associated with distress/disaster/death/loss/disease. This could be done in the form of cross-sectional or cohort studies to generate proper evidence which could also include the information on prevalence, mental health morbidity, and any specific patterns associated with a specific disorder.

Future research should estimate the prevalence of mental disorders in different age groups and gender, risk factors, and the influence of modernization. Studies should develop a theoretical model to understand mental disorders and promote positive mental health within ST communities. Studies should also look at different ST communities as cultural differences exist across them, and there are also differences in socioeconomic status which impact on ability to access care.Research has shown that the impact and the benefits are amplified when research is driven by priorities that are identified by indigenous communities and involve their active participation. Their knowledge and perspectives are incorporated in processes and findings.

Reporting of findings is meaningful to the communities. And indigenous groups and other key stakeholders are engaged from the outset.[47] Future research in India on ST communities should also adhere to these broad principles to ensure relevant and beneficial research, which have direct impact on the mental health of the ST communities.There is also a need to update literature related to mental health of ST population continuously. Develop culturally appropriate validated instruments to measure mental morbidity relevant to ST population. And use qualitative research to investigate the perceptions and barriers for help-seeking behavior.[48] Conclusion The current review helps not only to collate the existing literature on the mental health of ST communities but also identify gaps in knowledge and provide some indications about the type of research that should be funded in future.Financial support and sponsorshipNil.Conflicts of interestThere are no conflicts of interest.

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Perceived psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk. Observations among the Bhutias of Sikkim, India. Stress Health 2008;24:23-34. 27.Ali A, Eqbal S.

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Stress and mental health of tribal and non tribal female school teachers in Jharkhand, India. Int J Sci Res Publicat 2012;2:2250-3153. 29.Longkumer I, Borooah PI. Knowledge about attitudes toward mental disorders among Nagas in North East India.

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39.Ozer S, Acculturation, adaptation, and mental health among Ladakhi College Students a mixed methods study of an indigenous population. J Cross Cultl Psychol 2015;46:435-53. 40.Giri DK, Chaudhary S, Govinda M, Banerjee A, Mahto AK, Chakravorty PK. Utilization of psychiatric services by tribal population of Jharkhand through community outreach programme of RINPAS.

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47.Banerjee T, Mukherjee SP, Nandi DN, Banerjee G, Mukherjee A, Sen B, et al. Psychiatric morbidity in an urbanized tribal (Santal) community - A field survey. Indian J Psychiatry 1986;28:243-8. [PUBMED] [Full text] 48.Leske S, Harris MG, Charlson FJ, Ferrari AJ, Baxter AJ, Logan JM, et al.

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Correspondence Address:S V. Siddhardh Kumar DevarapalliGeorge Institute for Global Health, Plot No. 57, Second Floor, Corporation Bank Building, Nagarjuna Circle, Punjagutta, Hyderabad - 500 082, Telangana IndiaSource of Support. None, Conflict of Interest.

NoneDOI. 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_136_19 Figures [Figure 1] Tables [Table 1], [Table 2].

Levitra patient assistance

Much of modern ethics is built around the idea that levitra patient assistance we should respect one another’s autonomy. Here, “we” are typically imagined to be levitra patient assistance adult human beings of sound mind, where the soundness of our mind is measured against what we take to be the typical mental capacities of a neurodevelopmentally “normal” person—perhaps in their mid-thirties or forties. When deciding about what constitutes ethical sex, for example, our dominant models hold that ethical sex is whatever is consented to, while a lack of consent makes sex wrong.1 Consent, in turn, is analysed in terms of autonomous decision-making.

A “yes” or “no” that reflects the free and informed will of our idealised, sound-minded adult.Whether such models provide adequate normative guidance for ethical, levitra patient assistance much less good, sex between neurotypical human adults is an open question.2 3 When it comes to the ethics of sexual activity between humans and non-humans—robots, say—or between humans who don’t fit the rational stereotype (such as older people with dementia or younger adolescents), we hardly know where to begin.4–7 It is therefore heartening to see a number of papers in this issue tackling the difficult question how to respectfully facilitate or respond to the needs, desires, and decisions of people with different kinds or degrees of autonomy.8For example, Sumytra Menon and colleagues9 explicitly discuss the notion of “borderline capacity” and argue, in the medical domain, for shared and supportive decision-making practices to “foster the autonomy of patients with compromised mental capacity while being mindful of the need to safeguard their well-being.” (Could similar practices be applied to sexual decision-making?. ) Touching on a similar theme, Zahra Ladan10 asks how we should conceive of liberty in the case of persons with certain inborn physical or mental limitations. Might it sometimes be necessary to constrain or interfere with a person’s actions as a means of promoting their liberty—or can that only levitra patient assistance be an oxymoron?.

Finally, the problem of sexual consent in the context of diminished autonomy is addressed most directly in the piece by Andria Bianchi.11 Bianchi argues that people with certain cognitive impairments, such as dementia, should ideally be allowed to engage in sexual activity in accordance with their desires. But if consent, as that concept is traditionally understood, is required for sex to be ethical or legal, then people with dementia may be “prevented from having their sexual needs met even if we recognise these needs as levitra patient assistance important.”Which brings us to robots. According to Bianchi, sex robots, whether now or in the future, might “allow people with dementia to fulfil their needs regardless of whether they can provide or understand consent.” A similar proposal is raised by Nancy Jecker12 in her feature article, on which Bianchi’s piece is a commentary.

Additional commentaries levitra patient assistance are by Robert Sparrow,13 Tom Sorell,14 and Alexander Boni-Saenz.15Jecker’s article is entitled “Nothing to Be Ashamed of. Sex Robots for Older Adults with Disabilities.”1 The commenters on the article are united in their praise of Jecker for dispelling ageist stereotypes according to which older people either are, or should levitra patient assistance be, non-sexual beings. And they welcome Jecker’s attempt to stimulate creative thinking about how the sexual needs and desires of older people might best be accommodated.

At the same time, they felt that Jecker’s arguments in favour of sex robots toward this end fell short in some respects.Jecker begins by noting that older adults typically undergo certain physical and mental levitra patient assistance changes that can negatively affect sexual enjoyment. Jecker describes these changes in terms of functional impairments or lost abilities, where the functions in question seem mostly related to the ability to engage in penile-vaginal intercourse unassisted. For example, Jecker highlights “shortening and narrowing of the vagina, thinning of the vaginal walls and reduced lubrication” for older women, levitra patient assistance and various erectile difficulties for older men.But diminished sexual capacity, Jecker stresses, encompasses much more than a lessened ability to “accomplish the act of sexual intercourse itself.” Rather, for most human beings, sex with others “serves as a vehicle for expressing who they are as persons.” Sex is also integral, Jecker argues, to several basic capabilities (in the spirit of Nussbaum and Sen), including the ability to have a life-narrative, to be healthy, to feel and express a wide range of emotion, and to affiliate deeply with others.

Jecker suggests that providing sex robots to older people could help them to maintain these capabilities at some minimum level. So, we should try to see that such robots levitra patient assistance are provided.2Jecker anticipates some likely objections to her view. One is that, far from promoting the capability of being healthy for instance, repeatedly engaging in sexual activity with a humanoid robot3 (that is, an entity that presumably cannot provide ethically valid consent to such activity)4 would in fact harm the user.

In particular, levitra patient assistance it would do so by damaging the user’s character. In effect, the user would be satisfying their sexual urges by repeatedly simulating rape.15–18 To diffuse this objection, Jecker emphasises that sex robots are not sentient beings with thoughts, feelings, or wishes, but are rather mere instruments or “toys.” But this may cause problems for the rest of Jecker’s argument, which turns on the ability of sex robots to stimulate real human emotions and play a meaningful relational role in older people’s lives.It levitra patient assistance might not be possible to have it both ways. As Sorell argues, the sort of “affiliation” one might have with a sex robot is likely to be “too denuded” to serve as a substitute for the affiliation ideally achieved through sex with another human.

After all, a human being who “automatically simulates arousal on demand for their sexual partner, who is receptive to sex no questions asked, no matter when or where, has handed over their sexual will.” levitra patient assistance Thus, in the case of human-robot sex, a single person would be deciding how it goes. Affiliation, by contrast, “requires two.”5 Or as Sparrow puts it. Sex with a robot is simply high-tech masturbation.Likewise, Boni-Saenz doubts that many people would find sex robots “adequate for sexual relationships.” But he remains open to the possibility that at least some people could find sex robots levitra patient assistance to be “a suitable replacement for human intimacy in periods of old age” even if they may not otherwise “represent their preferred mode of sexual interaction.” Here, we suggest it may be worthwhile to undertake empirical research into older people’s actual attitudes and preferences toward (the prospect of) sex with robots,6 in order to shape our normative inquiry going forward.7Suppose it turns out that older adults, or some reasonably large proportion of them, find that they are able to form (or imagine forming) a meaningful intimate relationship with a sex robot—one that is sufficient to support the “affiliation” capability at least to some extent.

It seems to us this creates a real dilemma. The more humanlike the (felt) affiliation, levitra patient assistance the less effective Jecker’s “just a toy” response becomes to the objection about simulated rape. And the less humanlike the affiliation, the less effective Jecker’s argument that sex robots could support such a capability.19In fact, it isn’t clear to us how sex robots would be altogether helpful even for physical or functional issues, like those raised by Jecker.

How would a sex robot help with “shortening or levitra patient assistance narrowing of the vagina,” “reduced lubrication,” or erectile difficulties for those with penises?. A sex robot could, perhaps, apply a synthetic lubricant as needed—but so could a human partner. In any event, the focus on sexual “function” (in this physical sense) may obscure other possibilities for erotic fulfilment in older people.As Jecker acknowledges, age-related physiological levitra patient assistance changes need not necessarily lead to a deterioration in the quality of our sex lives.

Indeed, such changes may even contribute to a broader repertoire levitra patient assistance of sexual activities and bring partners closer together.20 Departing from the so-called coital imperative, for example, can – and often does – lead to the exploration of non-penetrative forms of sexual activity, which in turn may translate into greater sexual satisfaction, especially for women. The idea then might be to focus more on the building of erotic tension rather than on “performance,” and on becoming more sensitive to our partners’ emotional states rather than fixating on the mechanical possibilities of the body.21Jecker is right to call out sexual ageism. Older people often do levitra patient assistance have sexual needs, and this should not be stigmatised or ignored.

But we worry that a focus on sex robots may inadvertently strengthen the very ageism that Jecker decries. For such levitra patient assistance a focus could be seen as carrying an implicit message. Namely, that something crucial is lost if an older person does not maintain their youthful sexual stamina with the use of increasingly sophisticated tools.IntroductionThe erectile dysfunction treatment levitra has now reached all world continents except Antartica.

Its spread has placed an enormous and sustained burden on health systems, which has likely exacerbated the mortality rate of erectile dysfunction erectile dysfunction.1 Since the start of the levitra, several noteworthy contributions have discussed important aspects of intensive care units’ (henceforth ICUs) shortages.2–5 Like most allocation problems, this issue presents inherently normative questions that ethicists and physicians ought to address by developing a set of coherent and consistent rules, thus preventing healthcare practitioners to be faced ‘with the terrible task of improvising decisions on whom to treat’.2 Such guidelines are likely to directly affect a considerable number of citizens, as well as their families and relatives, throughout the levitra and might have relevant legal implications.6 Hence, it is of paramount importance to assess their perception of levitra patient assistance the fairness of such rules. If these are not in line with people’s moral views, this may create resentment and feelings of injustice that could worsen the already traumatic impact of the choices. These views could, therefore, inform policy makers and clinicians on the need to communicate appropriately the rationale behind the levitra patient assistance guidelines, in order to (partially) alleviate the above-mentioned effects.4The purpose of this paper is to inform the debate as to whether citizens’ moral principles are aligned with the proposed guidelines and recommendations.

To this levitra patient assistance end, we conducted a survey among a sample of American citizens. We compare individuals’ responses with the recommendations contained in ref 2 that offer a comprehensive set of guidelines for the allocation of scarce resources during erectile dysfunction treatment representing a widespread consensus in the medical literature. The next levitra patient assistance section describes the survey structure and design.

A methods section (section 3) describes characteristics of the sample and the statistical methodology. Section 4 levitra patient assistance presents our main results and section 5 concludes.The surveyOur survey was conducted among a sample of 1033 American citizens using the online survey platform CloudResearch. An additional 443 started the survey but did not finish.

This rate levitra patient assistance of completion (around 70%) is in line with online studies similar to ours. Subjects were recruited from the CloudResearch panel, which is heterogeneous in many sociodemographic dimensions (see Methods). In our survey, we asked respondents to imagine a situation in which the US levitra patient assistance Federal Government is planning to publish guidelines for the allocation of ICUs during the erectile dysfunction treatment levitra.

Respondents are asked which levitra patient assistance principles these guidelines should contain according to them. Respondents were informed that this was a research project and that their responses would remain anonymous. We elicited their views through the use of several hypothetical levitra patient assistance scenarios (see table 1).

All scenarios contain two patients (neutrally labelled patient A and patient B), with different characteristics, who have been hospitalised. Both patients levitra patient assistance need an ICU bed but only one is available. In all scenarios, respondents are asked which of four options they would suggest for the guidelines.

Admit patient A to the ICU, admit patient B, decide randomly and admit on a levitra patient assistance first-come first-served basis. Through the use of our scenarios, we test the extent to which people’s moral views are in line with the recommendations highlighted in ref 2. Table 1 reports the wording for each scenario and the implied levitra patient assistance recommendation.

Before being exposed to the scenarios, respondents had to answer four comprehension questions to ensure their understanding of the hypothetical situation. The order in which levitra patient assistance the scenarios appeared was randomised at the individual level. We believe that control questions and the levitra patient assistance randomised order of scenarios eliminate concerns about order and learning effects.

After the scenarios, respondents were asked several sociodemographic questions and questions about their perceptions of the erectile dysfunction treatment levitra (see online supplemental appendix A). There we no other questions about other subjects in the survey.Supplemental materialView this table:Table 1 The table describes the eight different scenarios proposed in the surveyMethodsOur respondents are part of the survey panel (prime panel) of the platform levitra patient assistance CloudResearch. Respondents from this panel have been shown to be more heterogeneous in various aspects (eg, age, education and political attitudes) with respect to the more commonly used pool of Amazon Mechanical Turk.7 Our sample is composed by respondents from 50 different states.

Respondents are highly heterogeneous levitra patient assistance in various dimensions. The majority of them are women (60.8%), and the average age is 44.6 years (SD=16.8). They have a levitra patient assistance higher educational attainment than the US average according to the 2018 data of the US Census Bureau,8 as almost all of them earned at least a high school degree (98%), and the majority of them (52.5%) earned at least a bachelor’s degree.

The median household yearly income before taxes ranges between $60 000 and $70 000, in line with the national figures ($63 119).9 A percentage of 17.3 of them declared to be smokers (vs 15.1% at national level). Finally, 41.6% identified levitra patient assistance themselves as Democrats, 36.6% as Republicans and 21.8% as Independents.10 The average survey completion time was 8.5 min. Therefore, the hourly compensation for the completion levitra patient assistance averaged to $8.82.

With respect to statistical analyses, we mainly used non-parametric tests for matched observations, that is, McNemar’s χ2 test and signrank test.11 Only in one case where we performed a between-subjects comparison, we use a test of proportions for independent observations (χ2 test).Survey responses. Each bar represents the distribution of answers for each of levitra patient assistance the eight scenarios. The bars on the left-hand side represent the share of answers in line with the recommendations from the guidelines.

The bars on the right-hand side represent the share of answers not in line with the recommendations." levitra patient assistance data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 Survey responses. Each bar represents the distribution of answers for each of the eight scenarios. The bars on the left-hand side represent the share of answers in levitra patient assistance line with the recommendations from the guidelines.

The bars on the right-hand side represent the share of answers not in line with the recommendations.ResultsFigure 1 shows the percentage of responses in line with the recommendations contained in ref 2. As it can be seen from the figure, levitra patient assistance we find high heterogeneity across scenarios. While for some scenarios responses are broadly in line with the recommendations, for others only levitra patient assistance a minority of responses is.

The share of responses in line with the recommendations ranges from 5.4% to 68.7%. In what follows we summarise our main results.Result 1 levitra patient assistance. Maximise benefitsMaximising benefits is considered to be the most important principle in a levitra.2 This principle can be applied either as saving most lives or as many years of life as possible.

We tested both these applications of the principle levitra patient assistance. To test the save most lives principle, in scenario 1, we describe both patients as having the same life expectancy but patient A as having higher probability of survival in an ICU. To test the save the most years of life principle, in scenario 2, the probability of survival in the ICU is the same for both patients, levitra patient assistance but patient A has higher life expectancy post-treatment.

Our results show that people tend to apply the maximising benefits principle significantly more often when this increases the chances of saving a life rather than when it saves more years of life in expectation (59.6% vs 44.7%, McNemar’s χ2(1)=79.58, p<0.001. Signrank test, levitra patient assistance z=8.92, p<0.001).Result 2. Maximise benefitsAnother important implication of the maximise benefits principle is that a patient with lower probability of survival ought to be removed from an ICU when a patient with higher probability of survival needs it.2 Despite being the most rational thing to do from a utilitarian perspective, this may be considered unfair for several reasons related to well-documented behavioural phenomena.

First, as resources have been levitra patient assistance already spent to cure the patient already in the ICU, respondents may be affected by the sunk cost fallacy, that is, the evidence that people commit to certain choices even when these choices are revealed to be suboptimal as time passes.12 13 Second, a patient’s incumbency may produce a sense of entitlement similar to the endowment effect in those who (perhaps subconsciously) identify with the incumbent, thus leading to the status quo bias.14 Finally, and perhaps more importantly, the emotional burden of suspending treatment may be stronger than the one of not initiating treatment, which could be caused by the perceived moral differences in omission (not treating) versus commission (suspending treatment).15 In order to test this implication of the maximise benefits principle, we included two scenarios that we administered between subjects (n=521 in scenario 3 and n=511 in scenario 4). In scenario 3, patient B, who has lower probability of survival, has been in the ICU for levitra patient assistance 2 months prior to the arrival of patient A. On the contrary, in scenario 4, the two are hospitalised at the same time.

The two vignettes are otherwise identical, and for obvious reasons, we have removed the first-come first-served option for these two scenarios.In line with our prediction, when the two patients arrive at the same time, 68.7% agree to admit patient A, while only 54.3% do so levitra patient assistance when patient B has been in the ICU for 2 months (χ2(1)=22.5, p<0.001).Result 3. Instrumental valueOne additional recommendation is to promote and reward instrumental value, that is, to prioritise ICU admission for those patients who have contributed to the treatment of erectile dysfunction treatment (ie, retrospective instrumental value) and to patients who will likely offer future contributions (ie, prospective instrumental value).2 To assess moral views for retrospective instrumental value, we created scenario 5, in which the two patients are identical in terms of life expectancy and probability of survival, but patient A is a nurse who has being treating patients with erectile dysfunction treatment. Regarding prospective instrumental value, levitra patient assistance the scenario is identical to the previous one, but patient A, instead of being a nurse, is a scientist working on a potential treatment to prevent erectile dysfunction treatment.

In both cases, only around 44% of respondents reward instrumental value, and we find no difference between prospective and retrospective instrumental value (McNemar’s χ2(1)=1.09, p=0.326. Signrank test, levitra patient assistance z=1.04, p=0.296)).Result 4. Treat people equallyRecommendation 3 in ref 2 stresses that, for patients with similar prognosis, random allocation must be preferred to a first-come first-served principle, though both are application of egalitarianism.

First-come first-served is typically used when scarcity is long-standing and patients can survive without the scarce resource, such as for example levitra patient assistance in the case of kidneys’ transplants. When needs are urgent, however, levitra patient assistance a first-come first-served approach could unfairly benefit patients living nearer to healthcare facilities, hence resulting in a less egalitarian treatment than pure randomisation. To assess people’s views on this, we included scenario 7, in which the two patients are equal in all characteristics, as well as in prognosis.

Despite most levitra patient assistance respondents choose one of the two egalitarian responses, among these the vast majority choose first-come first-served (91%). It is worth noticing that this difference consistently occurs across all other scenarios. Among those levitra patient assistance who prefer the egalitarian options, only 7.2% choose random allocation.

This may be because most cases of allocation of scarce resources are of the type where first-come first-served is appropriate and random selection is rarely used (think, for instance, of any situation in which queuing is accepted as normal). This evidence may make first-come first-served more salient and available due to past experience.16 This result calls for greater information to patients, and citizens, levitra patient assistance on the virtues of pure randomisation as the fairest means to insure equality (of opportunities).Result 5. Treat people equallyAnother recommendation related to equality states that patients with erectile dysfunction treatment and patients affected by other conditions should not be treated differently when allocating scarce resources.2 We tested this by including scenario 8, in which the two patients have the same prognosis, but one is affected by erectile dysfunction treatment and the other has pneumonia not caused by erectile dysfunction.

The percentages of those who state a levitra patient assistance preference for treating one of the two patients sum up to 55.8%. This is much higher than the same answers given in scenario 7 (20.3%), where instead an levitra patient assistance egalitarian principle is chosen by most. Most of the respondents (34.8%) in scenario 8 suggest to treat the patient affected by erectile dysfunction treatment.

This proportion alone is significantly higher compared with the sum of proportions of respondents choosing either option A or B in scenario 7, indicating that individuals tend to favour levitra patient assistance the treatment of the patient with erectile dysfunction treatment in contrast to the recommendation (McNemar’s χ2(1)=62.50, p<0.001. Signrank test, z=7.91, p<0.001)).Next, we exploit our post survey sociodemographic dataset to assess whether the results reported are heterogeneous across different strata of the population. In online supplemental appendix B, levitra patient assistance we replicate each of the results above (except result 4 in which we do not employ statistical tests) breaking down the sample for gender, education, employment status, age, political orientation and income.

For all subgroups, results are in line qualitatively and in terms of significance levels with the main results reported above. We conclude that our results do not depend on the specific subgroup analysed but are stable across all subgroups.ConclusionsGuidelines for the allocation of scarce levitra patient assistance resources during the erectile dysfunction treatment levitra are essential and can guarantee a fair and consistent allocation across cases. We have shown, through survey results, that these ethically sensible recommendations do not always reflect the views of citizens.

We found considerable heterogeneity in people’s moral judgements, and we believe this heterogeneity must be addressed by (better) informing citizens regarding the rationale behind levitra patient assistance each principle. We hope that this evidence may inform policy makers, as well as healthcare practitioners, of the need to provide an effective communication to citizens and patients, respectively, in order to avoid decision rules that may otherwise be perceived as arbitrary or unfair..

Much of modern ethics is built around the site link idea that we where to buy levitra online should respect one another’s autonomy. Here, “we” are typically imagined to be adult human beings of sound mind, where the soundness of our mind is measured against what we where to buy levitra online take to be the typical mental capacities of a neurodevelopmentally “normal” person—perhaps in their mid-thirties or forties. When deciding about what constitutes ethical sex, for example, our dominant models hold that ethical sex is whatever is consented to, while a lack of consent makes sex wrong.1 Consent, in turn, is analysed in terms of autonomous decision-making. A “yes” or “no” that reflects the free and informed will of our idealised, sound-minded adult.Whether such models provide adequate normative guidance for ethical, much less good, sex between neurotypical human adults is an open question.2 3 When it comes to the ethics of sexual activity between humans and non-humans—robots, say—or between humans who don’t fit the rational stereotype (such as older people with dementia or younger adolescents), we hardly know where to begin.4–7 It is therefore heartening to see a number of papers in this issue tackling the difficult question how to respectfully facilitate or respond to the needs, desires, and decisions of people with different kinds or degrees of autonomy.8For example, Sumytra Menon and colleagues9 explicitly discuss the notion of “borderline capacity” and argue, in the medical domain, for shared and supportive decision-making practices to “foster the autonomy of patients with compromised mental capacity while being mindful of the need to safeguard their well-being.” (Could similar where to buy levitra online practices be applied to sexual decision-making?.

) Touching on a similar theme, Zahra Ladan10 asks how we should conceive of liberty in the case of persons with certain inborn physical or mental limitations. Might it sometimes be necessary to constrain or interfere with a person’s actions as a means of where to buy levitra online promoting their liberty—or can that only be an oxymoron?. Finally, the problem of sexual consent in the context of diminished autonomy is addressed most directly in the piece by Andria Bianchi.11 Bianchi argues that people with certain cognitive impairments, such as dementia, should ideally be allowed to engage in sexual activity in accordance with their desires. But if consent, as that concept is traditionally understood, is required for sex to be ethical or where to buy levitra online legal, then people with dementia may be “prevented from having their sexual needs met even if we recognise these needs as important.”Which brings us to robots.

According to Bianchi, sex robots, whether now or in the future, might “allow people with dementia to fulfil their needs regardless of whether they can provide or understand consent.” A similar proposal is raised by Nancy Jecker12 in her feature article, on which Bianchi’s piece is a commentary. Additional commentaries are by Robert Sparrow,13 Tom Sorell,14 and Alexander Boni-Saenz.15Jecker’s article is entitled where to buy levitra online “Nothing to Be Ashamed of. Sex Robots for Older Adults with Disabilities.”1 The commenters on the article are united in their praise of Jecker for dispelling ageist stereotypes according to which older people either are, or should be, where to buy levitra online non-sexual beings. And they welcome Jecker’s attempt to stimulate creative thinking about how the sexual needs and desires of older people might best be accommodated.

At the same time, they felt that Jecker’s arguments in favour of sex robots toward this end fell short in some respects.Jecker begins by noting that older adults typically undergo certain physical where to buy levitra online and mental changes that can negatively affect sexual enjoyment. Jecker describes these changes in terms of functional impairments or lost abilities, where the functions in question seem mostly related to the ability to engage in penile-vaginal intercourse unassisted. For example, Jecker highlights “shortening and narrowing of the vagina, thinning of the vaginal walls and reduced lubrication” for older women, and various erectile difficulties for older men.But diminished sexual capacity, Jecker stresses, encompasses much more than a lessened ability to “accomplish the act of sexual intercourse itself.” Rather, for most human beings, sex with others “serves as a vehicle for where to buy levitra online expressing who they are as persons.” Sex is also integral, Jecker argues, to several basic capabilities (in the spirit of Nussbaum and Sen), including the ability to have a life-narrative, to be healthy, to feel and express a wide range of emotion, and to affiliate deeply with others. Jecker suggests that providing sex robots to older people could help them to maintain these capabilities at some minimum level.

So, we should try to see that where to buy levitra online such robots are provided.2Jecker anticipates some likely objections to her view. One is that, far from promoting the capability of being healthy for instance, repeatedly engaging in sexual activity with a humanoid robot3 (that is, an entity that presumably cannot provide ethically valid consent to such activity)4 would in fact harm the user. In particular, it would do so by damaging the user’s character where to buy levitra online. In effect, the user would be satisfying their sexual urges by repeatedly simulating rape.15–18 To diffuse this objection, where to buy levitra online Jecker emphasises that sex robots are not sentient beings with thoughts, feelings, or wishes, but are rather mere instruments or “toys.” But this may cause problems for the rest of Jecker’s argument, which turns on the ability of sex robots to stimulate real human emotions and play a meaningful relational role in older people’s lives.It might not be possible to have it both ways.

As Sorell argues, the sort of “affiliation” one might have with a sex robot is likely to be “too denuded” to serve as a substitute for the affiliation ideally achieved through sex with another human. After all, a human being who “automatically simulates arousal on demand for their sexual partner, who is receptive to sex no where to buy levitra online questions asked, no matter when or where, has handed over their sexual will.” Thus, in the case of human-robot sex, a single person would be deciding how it goes. Affiliation, by contrast, “requires two.”5 Or as Sparrow puts it. Sex with a robot is simply high-tech masturbation.Likewise, Boni-Saenz doubts that many where to buy levitra online people would find sex robots “adequate for sexual relationships.” But he remains open to the possibility that at least some people could find sex robots to be “a suitable replacement for human intimacy in periods of old age” even if they may not otherwise “represent their preferred mode of sexual interaction.” Here, we suggest it may be worthwhile to undertake empirical research into older people’s actual attitudes and preferences toward (the prospect of) sex with robots,6 in order to shape our normative inquiry going forward.7Suppose it turns out that older adults, or some reasonably large proportion of them, find that they are able to form (or imagine forming) a meaningful intimate relationship with a sex robot—one that is sufficient to support the “affiliation” capability at least to some extent.

It seems to us this creates a real dilemma. The more humanlike the (felt) affiliation, the less effective Jecker’s “just a toy” response where to buy levitra online becomes to the objection about simulated rape. And the less humanlike the affiliation, the less effective Jecker’s argument that sex robots could support such a capability.19In fact, it isn’t clear to us how sex robots would be altogether helpful even for physical or functional issues, like those raised by Jecker. How would where to buy levitra online a sex robot help with “shortening or narrowing of the vagina,” “reduced lubrication,” or erectile difficulties for those with penises?.

A sex robot could, perhaps, apply a synthetic lubricant as needed—but so could a human partner. In any event, the focus where to buy levitra online on sexual “function” (in this physical sense) may obscure other possibilities for erotic fulfilment in older people.As Jecker acknowledges, age-related physiological changes need not necessarily lead to a deterioration in the quality of our sex lives. Indeed, such changes may even contribute to a broader repertoire of sexual activities and bring partners closer together.20 Departing from the so-called coital imperative, for example, can – and often does – lead where to buy levitra online to the exploration of non-penetrative forms of sexual activity, which in turn may translate into greater sexual satisfaction, especially for women. The idea then might be to focus more on the building of erotic tension rather than on “performance,” and on becoming more sensitive to our partners’ emotional states rather than fixating on the mechanical possibilities of the body.21Jecker is right to call out sexual ageism.

Older people often do have sexual needs, and this should not be stigmatised where to buy levitra online or ignored. But we worry that a focus on sex robots may inadvertently strengthen the very ageism that Jecker decries. For such a focus could be where to buy levitra online seen as carrying an implicit message. Namely, that something crucial is lost if an older person does not maintain their youthful sexual stamina with the use of increasingly sophisticated tools.IntroductionThe erectile dysfunction treatment levitra has now reached all world continents except Antartica.

Its spread has placed an enormous and sustained burden on health systems, which has likely exacerbated the mortality rate of erectile dysfunction erectile dysfunction.1 Since the start of the levitra, several noteworthy contributions have discussed important where to buy levitra online aspects of intensive care units’ (henceforth ICUs) shortages.2–5 Like most allocation problems, this issue presents inherently normative questions that ethicists and physicians ought to address by developing a set of coherent and consistent rules, thus preventing healthcare practitioners to be faced ‘with the terrible task of improvising decisions on whom to treat’.2 Such guidelines are likely to directly affect a considerable number of citizens, as well as their families and relatives, throughout the levitra and might have relevant legal implications.6 Hence, it is of paramount importance to assess their perception of the fairness of such rules. If these are not in line with people’s moral views, this may create resentment and feelings of injustice that could worsen the already traumatic impact of the choices. These views could, therefore, inform policy makers and clinicians on the need to communicate appropriately the rationale behind the guidelines, in order to (partially) alleviate the above-mentioned effects.4The purpose of this paper is to inform the debate as to whether citizens’ moral principles are aligned with where to buy levitra online the proposed guidelines and recommendations. To this where to buy levitra online end, we conducted a survey among a sample of American citizens.

We compare individuals’ responses with the recommendations contained in ref 2 that offer a comprehensive set of guidelines for the allocation of scarce resources during erectile dysfunction treatment representing a widespread consensus in the medical literature. The next section describes the survey where to buy levitra online structure and design. A methods section (section 3) describes characteristics of the sample and the statistical methodology. Section 4 presents our main results and section 5 concludes.The surveyOur survey was conducted among a sample where to buy levitra online of 1033 American citizens using the online survey platform CloudResearch.

An additional 443 started the survey but did not finish. This rate of completion where to buy levitra online (around 70%) is in line with online studies similar to ours. Subjects were recruited from the CloudResearch panel, which is heterogeneous in many sociodemographic dimensions (see Methods). In our where to buy levitra online survey, we asked respondents to imagine a situation in which the US Federal Government is planning to publish guidelines for the allocation of ICUs during the erectile dysfunction treatment levitra.

Respondents are asked which principles these guidelines where to buy levitra online should contain according to them. Respondents were informed that this was a research project and that their responses would remain anonymous. We elicited where to buy levitra online their views through the use of several hypothetical scenarios (see table 1). All scenarios contain two patients (neutrally labelled patient A and patient B), with different characteristics, who have been hospitalised.

Both patients need an ICU bed but where to buy levitra online only one is available. In all scenarios, respondents are asked which of four options they would suggest for the guidelines. Admit patient A to the ICU, where to buy levitra online admit patient B, decide randomly and admit on a first-come first-served basis. Through the use of our scenarios, we test the extent to which people’s moral views are in line with the recommendations highlighted in ref 2.

Table 1 reports the wording for each where to buy levitra online scenario and the implied recommendation. Before being exposed to the scenarios, respondents had to answer four comprehension questions to ensure their understanding of the hypothetical situation. The order where to buy levitra online in which the scenarios appeared was randomised at the individual level. We believe that control questions and the randomised order of scenarios eliminate concerns about order and learning where to buy levitra online effects.

After the scenarios, respondents were asked several sociodemographic questions and questions about their perceptions of the erectile dysfunction treatment levitra (see online supplemental appendix A). There we no other questions about other subjects in the survey.Supplemental materialView this table:Table 1 The table describes the eight different scenarios proposed in the surveyMethodsOur respondents are part of the survey panel (prime panel) of the where to buy levitra online platform CloudResearch. Respondents from this panel have been shown to be more heterogeneous in various aspects (eg, age, education and political attitudes) with respect to the more commonly used pool of Amazon Mechanical Turk.7 Our sample is composed by respondents from 50 different states. Respondents are where to buy levitra online highly heterogeneous in various dimensions.

The majority of them are women (60.8%), and the average age is 44.6 years (SD=16.8). They have a higher educational attainment than the US average according to the 2018 where to buy levitra online data of the US Census Bureau,8 as almost all of them earned at least a high school degree (98%), and the majority of them (52.5%) earned at least a bachelor’s degree. The median household yearly income before taxes ranges between $60 000 and $70 000, in line with the national figures ($63 119).9 A percentage of 17.3 of them declared to be smokers (vs 15.1% at national level). Finally, 41.6% identified themselves as Democrats, 36.6% as Republicans and 21.8% as where to buy levitra online Independents.10 The average survey completion time was 8.5 min.

Therefore, the hourly where to buy levitra online compensation for the completion averaged to $8.82. With respect to statistical analyses, we mainly used non-parametric tests for matched observations, that is, McNemar’s χ2 test and signrank test.11 Only in one case where we performed a between-subjects comparison, we use a test of proportions for independent observations (χ2 test).Survey responses. Each bar represents the distribution of answers for each of where to buy levitra online the eight scenarios. The bars on the left-hand side represent the share of answers in line with the recommendations from the guidelines.

The bars on the where to buy levitra online right-hand side represent the share of answers not in line with the recommendations." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 Survey responses. Each bar represents the distribution of answers for each of the eight scenarios. The bars on the left-hand side represent the share of answers in line with the recommendations from where to buy levitra online the guidelines. The bars on the right-hand side represent the share of answers not in line with the recommendations.ResultsFigure 1 shows the percentage of responses in line with the recommendations contained in ref 2.

As it can be seen from the figure, we find high heterogeneity where to buy levitra online across scenarios. While for some scenarios responses are broadly in line with the recommendations, for others only where to buy levitra online a minority of responses is. The share of responses in line with the recommendations ranges from 5.4% to 68.7%. In what follows we where to buy levitra online summarise our main results.Result 1.

Maximise benefitsMaximising benefits is considered to be the most important principle in a levitra.2 This principle can be applied either as saving most lives or as many years of life as possible. We tested both these where to buy levitra online applications of the principle. To test the save most lives principle, in scenario 1, we describe both patients as having the same life expectancy but patient A as having higher probability of survival in an ICU. To test the save the most years of life principle, in scenario 2, the probability of survival in the ICU is the same for both patients, but where to buy levitra online patient A has higher life expectancy post-treatment.

Our results show that people tend to apply the maximising benefits principle significantly more often when this increases the chances of saving a life rather than when it saves more years of life in expectation (59.6% vs 44.7%, McNemar’s χ2(1)=79.58, p<0.001. Signrank test, z=8.92, where to buy levitra online p<0.001).Result 2. Maximise benefitsAnother important implication of the maximise benefits principle is that a patient with lower probability of survival ought to be removed from an ICU when a patient with higher probability of survival needs it.2 Despite being the most rational thing to do from a utilitarian perspective, this may be considered unfair for several reasons related to well-documented behavioural phenomena. First, as resources have been already spent to where to buy levitra online cure the patient already in the ICU, respondents may be affected by the sunk cost fallacy, that is, the evidence that people commit to certain choices even when these choices are revealed to be suboptimal as time passes.12 13 Second, a patient’s incumbency may produce a sense of entitlement similar to the endowment effect in those who (perhaps subconsciously) identify with the incumbent, thus leading to the status quo bias.14 Finally, and perhaps more importantly, the emotional burden of suspending treatment may be stronger than the one of not initiating treatment, which could be caused by the perceived moral differences in omission (not treating) versus commission (suspending treatment).15 In order to test this implication of the maximise benefits principle, we included two scenarios that we administered between subjects (n=521 in scenario 3 and n=511 in scenario 4).

In scenario 3, patient B, who has lower probability of survival, has been in the ICU for where to buy levitra online 2 months prior to the arrival of patient A. On the contrary, in scenario 4, the two are hospitalised at the same time. The two vignettes are otherwise identical, and for obvious reasons, we have removed the first-come first-served option for these two scenarios.In line with our prediction, when the two patients arrive at the same time, 68.7% agree to admit patient A, while only 54.3% do so when patient B has been in the ICU for 2 months (χ2(1)=22.5, p<0.001).Result where to buy levitra online 3. Instrumental valueOne additional recommendation is to promote and reward instrumental value, that is, to prioritise ICU admission for those patients who have contributed to the treatment of erectile dysfunction treatment (ie, retrospective instrumental value) and to patients who will likely offer future contributions (ie, prospective instrumental value).2 To assess moral views for retrospective instrumental value, we created scenario 5, in which the two patients are identical in terms of life expectancy and probability of survival, but patient A is a nurse who has being treating patients with erectile dysfunction treatment.

Regarding prospective instrumental value, the scenario is identical to the where to buy levitra online previous one, but patient A, instead of being a nurse, is a scientist working on a potential treatment to prevent erectile dysfunction treatment. In both cases, only around 44% of respondents reward instrumental value, and we find no difference between prospective and retrospective instrumental value (McNemar’s χ2(1)=1.09, p=0.326. Signrank test, z=1.04, where to buy levitra online p=0.296)).Result 4. Treat people equallyRecommendation 3 in ref 2 stresses that, for patients with similar prognosis, random allocation must be preferred to a first-come first-served principle, though both are application of egalitarianism.

First-come first-served is where to buy levitra online typically used when scarcity is long-standing and patients can survive without the scarce resource, such as for example in the case of kidneys’ transplants. When needs are urgent, however, a first-come first-served approach could unfairly benefit patients living nearer to healthcare facilities, hence resulting in a less egalitarian treatment than pure where to buy levitra online randomisation. To assess people’s views on this, we included scenario 7, in which the two patients are equal in all characteristics, as well as in prognosis. Despite most respondents where to buy levitra online choose one of the two egalitarian responses, among these the vast majority choose first-come first-served (91%).

It is worth noticing that this difference consistently occurs across all other scenarios. Among those who prefer the where to buy levitra online egalitarian options, only 7.2% choose random allocation. This may be because most cases of allocation of scarce resources are of the type where first-come first-served is appropriate and random selection is rarely used (think, for instance, of any situation in which queuing is accepted as normal). This evidence may make first-come first-served more salient and available due to past experience.16 This result calls for greater information to patients, and citizens, on the virtues of pure randomisation as the fairest means to insure equality (of opportunities).Result 5 where to buy levitra online.

Treat people equallyAnother recommendation related to equality states that patients with erectile dysfunction treatment and patients affected by other conditions should not be treated differently when allocating scarce resources.2 We tested this by including scenario 8, in which the two patients have the same prognosis, but one is affected by erectile dysfunction treatment and the other has pneumonia not caused by erectile dysfunction. The percentages of those who state a preference for treating one of the where to buy levitra online two patients sum up to 55.8%. This is much higher than the same answers given where to buy levitra online in scenario 7 (20.3%), where instead an egalitarian principle is chosen by most. Most of the respondents (34.8%) in scenario 8 suggest to treat the patient affected by erectile dysfunction treatment.

This proportion alone is significantly higher compared with the sum of proportions of respondents choosing either option A or B in scenario 7, indicating that individuals tend to where to buy levitra online favour the treatment of the patient with erectile dysfunction treatment in contrast to the recommendation (McNemar’s χ2(1)=62.50, p<0.001. Signrank test, z=7.91, p<0.001)).Next, we exploit our post survey sociodemographic dataset to assess whether the results reported are heterogeneous across different strata of the population. In online supplemental appendix B, we replicate each of the results above (except result 4 in which we do not employ statistical tests) breaking down the sample for gender, education, employment status, age, political orientation and where to buy levitra online income. For all subgroups, results are in line qualitatively and in terms of significance levels with the main results reported above.

We conclude that our results do not depend on the specific subgroup analysed but are stable across all subgroups.ConclusionsGuidelines for the allocation of scarce resources during the erectile dysfunction treatment levitra are essential and can guarantee a fair and consistent allocation where to buy levitra online across cases. We have shown, through survey results, that these ethically sensible recommendations do not always reflect the views of citizens. We found considerable heterogeneity in people’s moral judgements, and we believe this heterogeneity must be addressed by (better) informing where to buy levitra online citizens regarding the rationale behind each principle. We hope that this evidence may inform policy makers, as well as healthcare practitioners, of the need to provide an effective communication to citizens and patients, respectively, in order to avoid decision rules that may otherwise be perceived as arbitrary or unfair..

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